The clans or bands of the Sydney region

Whilst anthropologists have followed the pattern of other countries and categorised the various groups of Aborigines as tribes, the "tribal" names by which the Sydney district Aborigines are known refer more to the localities where the language or language group was spoken rather than ancestry. Around Sydney there were three main groups - Dharug, Kuringgai and Dharawal - each comprising of a number of smaller units called clans or hordes who claimed a common ancestry had their own land area with its sacred sites.

The Dharug
The largest of the groups, the name being spelt in a variety of ways, including Daruk (the name of the land council), Dharug (the National Park) and Dharruk (the suburb). Their territory extended from the Blue Mountains to the coast, but were predominantly in the area we now know as Western Sydney. The name Dharug is actually the native word for Yam, which were an important part of the group's diet. These yams were particularly common on the plains of the Hawksbury-Nepean River system, which is why there was so much trouble between the natives and whites in the 1800s when the new arrivals began clearing the river flats, wiping out the yams for their crops. The coastal Dharug became known as the Eora, not because it was their name, but because of a cross cultural misunderstanding, a situation which still exists. When asked by the whites to identify themselves, the answer given was "eora", which means "where". Capt. Phillip took that to mean that their tribal name was eora, not realising he was being told that they were the local residents from around here"! The name Eora is used in historic documents and books to describe all the Aborigines who lived in the area from Broken Bay to Botany Bay and inland as far as Liverpool and Parramatta.

Dharug Clans or Bands

Cadigal / Kadigal - North Head to Five Dock Wangal / Wanegal - Iron Cove, Concord Burramattagal / Burramedigal - Parramatta Wallumattagal / Walumedegal - Milsons Point / Ryde Mura-ora-dial - Maroubra Kurrajong - Sackville / Portland / Kurrajong Muringong (probably Muringal) - Camden district Kameygal - Rockdale / Kyeemagh / Botany Bay Bool-bain-ora - Wentworthville Mulgoa - Penrith Birrabirragal - Watsons Bay / Vaucluse Bediagal - north of Georges River Toogagal - Toongabbie Cabrogal - Cabramatta / Fairfield Burruberongal / Boorooberongal - Richmond / Windsor Cannemegal - Prospect Gomerrigal-Tongara - South Creek Bidjigal - Castle Hill Cattai - Windsor / Middle Hawkesbury

The Kuring-Gai
Kuringgai is used to describe the Aborigines who lived between Port Jackson and Broken Bay. For many years it was believed that the Kuringgai were a different "tribe" and spoke a language different to the Dharug, however today there is considerable doubt about this, the origin of the name Kuringgai having given the biggest clue to the truth. The name Kuringgai is derived from two words; kuri, the name by which the Aboriginal people of South Eastern Australia still refer to themselves; and nggai, which is the possessive suffix. Thus, it seems likely that the name Kuringgai would have been recorded as a result of the Aborigines being asked "What place is this?" and the whites being given the answer "belonging to us" or "our land". The name Kuringgai was recorded, and in time it would have become a common belief that their language was also Kuringgai. It appears that the naming of the people and their language as Kuringgai could well be the result of another cultural misunderstanding. As recorded history indicates that the Kuringgai communicated freely with the Eora, it seems logical that they were in fact Dharug and spoke the same language, if not a different dialect, to the Dharug.

Kuring-Gai Clans or Bands

Cammeraigal / Kameragal - Chatswood / Cammeray to Lane Cove River Terramerragal - Turramurra / St Ives / Terrey Hills. Carigal - Barrenjoey Peninsula / West Head Cannalagal - Mona Vale / Dee Why / Manly Goruaigal - Fig Tree Point Kayimai or Gayimai - Manly Borogegal - Manly area Gorualgal - Crows Nest / Neutral Bay Borogegal-yuruey - Bradleys Head

The Dharawal
These people occupied the area between Georges River and Jervis Bay. The tribespeople who encountered Lt. James Cook when he visited Botany Bay in April 1770, were of the Gweagal Clan which was part of the Dharawal language group.

Dharawal Clans or Bands

Gweagal - Kurnell / Caringbah Norongerragal or Nongerragal - Menai / Bangor Threawal - Bong Bong / Southern Highlands Tagary or Tagarai - Royal National Park Illawarra - Wollongong

Many of the following have been recorded over the years as being the sub-clans and tribes which lived in the Sydney basin. In most cases, they were probably not tribal names, rather they described where they came from. The writings of George Proctor, protector of Aborigines in the 1800s, refer to a number of previously unrecorded groups, including the Bidgimangora and Bulladeersyallaway. These were not tribal names, rather descriptive names made up from words of different languages. Bull is Dharug for two; deers is a Scottish originated corruption of days which was in common use at the time; Yalta is Dharug for walk; and away is English. Bulladeersyallaway was in fact not the name of a tribe, but simply identified them as a people who lived two days walk away. Baja in Dharug means flat, ova indicates a place or district, therefore Bidgimangora simply refers to people from the plains, rather than it being a tribal group name.

The Burramattagal, from which the name Parramatta was derived, lived at the head of the Parramatta River. Their name is derived from Burra, meaning beginning; and matte, used to identify a locality in a similar way in which Europeans add suffixes like ton, town and ville to the name of a location. Burramattagal were literally people from the head of the river. The Boorooberongal were people who lived where Richmond is today. An area that was once plentiful with kangaroos, the name describing the people from there refers to them as being "from the kangaroos". Bidgigal was a name to describe anyone from flat country (it was used to describe a number of peoples from different areas); the name of the Mulgoa of the Nepean River refers to the black swan found on the river; The name Cannagal, used to describe the North Head people, literally means people of fire. History indicates they burned their environment more often than Aborigines from other areas, perhaps because the nature of the flora in their area, which was scrub and heath, required this be done to keep it habitable.

The Comma or Canna
The clan which inhabited the area around Middle Harbour from Clontarf to Manly are recorded as being the Comma, however it is likely they were part of the Cammeraigals (see below), their name being similar, perhaps a shortened version of Cammeraigal. Numbering between 50 to 100 in 1788, they used the caves around Grotto Point and Washaway Bay as shelters, and the beaches from The Spit around to Manly were their seafood hunting ground. Middens can be found at Fisher Bay and Reef Beach. Little else is known of the Comma people except that they were the most hostile of the Port Jackson natives towards the new arrivals. Within 12 months of Phillip's landing at and naming Manly Beach, half of the clan had died through smallpox, a disease introduced by the newcomers to which they had no natural resistance. Within 7 years, the tribe had all but vanished.

Collins Beach, in the heart of Comma territory, is where Gov. Phillip was speared by an aborigine. Phillip and Capt. Collins had arrived at the beach to visit their friend Bennelong, who had just returned from walkabout. Three men had died when a whale had overturned a boat in the harbour. The whale had then been washed up on the beach at Manly and killed by the local Aborigines.

As was their custom, the locals had passed the message on to neighboring tribes that a whale had been beached and hundreds of aborigines had arrived to share the feast. As Bennelong was introducing Gov. Phillip to his fellow tribesmen, a West head tribe leader named Wil-le-me-ring mistook Phillip's outstretched arm as a hostile gesture and speared him above the collarbone. Phillip, not wanting to retaliate and cause problems, calmly moved away, and asked Bennelong to take whatever action he felt appropriate. After the incident, the beach was known as Collins Beach, after Judge Advocate George Collins who had accompanied Phillip on this occasion. Arabian, a Comma, was reluctantly captured at Manly Cove by Gov. Phillip. He died of smallpox within six months of capture, and appears to have been infected himself when caring for his ´┐Żbrothers' infected by the disease.

As more and more whites settled the area around Manly, Welling Reserve, designed to protect the local Aboriginal people, was established. Though the shelters at the reserve were familiar to them, being forced to stay in one area was totally foreign to the aborigines, and the idea of a reserve was totally unsatisfactory to them. Within a few years, they were wiped out by the diseases of the white man.

The Cammeraigal
Also spelt Gamaraigals. The north shore suburb of Cammeray, which is in the heart of their tribal territory, is named after the Cammeraigal. Though their main territory was the western side of Middle Harbour from around Bantry Bay to Mosman, the Cammeraigal were a very mobile people and were often seen in other parts of Sydney Harbour looking for shellfish which were in more plenteous supply on its southern shores than Middle Harbour, which was their territory. The Cammeraigal were a large and powerful group whose members included clever men or courageous, who had an important role in the spiritual and ritual side of life. Their name in fact means "people of the clever men".

The last surviving male Cammeraigal was named Tarpot, an old man who lived in a cave near the Barn at the head of Mosman Bay. Records indicate he was still alive in 1888 but there is no account of when he died. He was one of the few to live to old age and survive the smallpox epidemic which wiped out his tribe.

The Borogegal
Found on the lower North shore and the west bank of Lower Middle Harbour, they were a very small clan who numbered no more than 30 in 1788 when their tribal details were recorded by the white colonists. They lived in the same area as the Cammeraigal, and were commonly found around Mosman Bay. Numerous middens of the clan can be found on the shores of their territory, such as a cave on Little Sirius Point and the shores of Mosman Bay, Tailors Bay and Chowder Bay which are dotted with middens. it was at Chowder Bay in the summer of 1788 where they first met white man in a friendly encounter.

The Garigal
The Garigals had populated the area around Kuring-gai Chase, Broken Bay and the Hawkesbury River for thousands of years. The largest of the Kuringgai clans, it is believed that well in excess of a thousand occupied this territory before white settlement. After the smallpox epidemic depleted their numbers, they regrouped as the Broken Bay tribe.

With the arrival of the colonists, the number of fish harvested from in Sydney Harbour increased and the supply rapidly depleted. Consequently, many of the tribes from the Sydney Harbour region moved up around Broken Bay where the arrival of the white man had yet to make an impact, but wasn't long before it did. Governor Phillip made first contact with the Garigals at Resolute Beach in March 1788 where he was greeted by a friendly old man and a boy. They showed him the land, offered him a cave to shelter in overnight and on the following day, followed him around in the rain. It was on this visit that Phillip learnt that all the women of the Port Jackson region all were missing the first joint of their little finger on their left hand to help them perform one of their more important domestic chores in later life - catching fish. The joint was removed soon after birth in a process called meal gun. A piece of string was tied tightly around the little finger and kept there until the joint eventually fell off.

Phillip was always given great respect by the Garigals, perhaps because, like them, he was missing a front tooth. It was part of their custom to remove a young boy's front tooth as part of their initiation ceremony, a ritual they insisted other Kuringgai speaking natives followed, so they probably believed Phillip had also been initiated into his tribe in that manner. Phillip and subsequent governors responded warmly to the gentleness of the local tribes, and attempted at all times to keep relations between the two cultures friendly and open. When their survival became increasingly threatened by white man fishing what for centuries had been their waters, the Aborigines successfully petitioned Governor Hunter for their own fishing ground.

Evidence of the area's occupation by the Garigals abounds. Middens can still be seen along the shores of Pittwater and rock art featuring hand stencils and pictures of kangaroos, dolphins and fish decorate the rock and caverns in which the Garigals sought shelter from the elements at night. Hand stencils were painted with a mix of white clay and water which was blown on from the artist's mouth. Sometimes red clay was used to create read paint, at other times they used human or animal blood.

The Garigals have long since vanished from the Kuring-gai Chase and Pittwater regions, but their memory is kept alive by their rocks art and by the national park after which bears their clan name and the Kuring-gai Chase National Park, which recalls their language.

The Cadigal
The area between the southern shores of Port Jackson and Botany Bay, including the area that is now known as Sydney's central business district, was populated by the Cadigal and a sub-group, The Birrabirragals. Their territory extended east to around Petersham.

Phillip had his first encounter with the Cadigal people when exploring Sydney Harbour in search of a site for his colony. As the new arrivals pitched the tents at Camp Cove, a row of spear-shaking natives positioned themselves on the overhangs of the cliffs and shouted "warra-warra-warra" which means "go away".

Determined to establish a peaceful relationship with them, Phillip forbade his men to retaliate and maintained a similar attitude throughout his governorship. This attitude no doubt defused a lot of problems which might have arisen had the colonists been encouraged to follow their natural instincts and fire their guns in the event of conflict which is inevitable when two cultures meet and try and share a common domain. The peace was short-lived, however, as the influx of more colonists with the second and consecutive fleets of new arrivals put more pressure on their survival.

The middens found in just about every bay of Sydney Harbour from Balmain to Watsons Bay are evidence that the Cadigal loved their seafood and spent many a balmy summer evening feasting on oysters, crabs and cockles by the harbour shores. Caves and overhangs at Milk Beach, Parsley Bay were all used as shelters, and according to early colonial records, the beaches of Rose Bay, Parsley Bay, Milk Beach at Watsons Bay were places of embarkation for excursions up and down the harbour in canoes made from the bark of trees. The rock carvings at Milk Beach are some of the best preserved in the area, due to the fact that they are often protected by water and sand and only are exposed after heavy rain and at low tide.

The Cadigal and Birrabirragals were not tall, but stocky and very strong. They wore fur coasts made from possum skins in winter, but discarded them in summer, to wear only their belts and weapons. The women wore kangaroo skins in winter, and carried over-the-shoulder bags containing flint stones to make fires and paperbark for holding water.

The land in the vicinity of the Macquarie Lighthouse was a sacred site used for burial of the dead. It was here where their elderly dead were cremated and their younger dead placed in grass-lined graves and covered with soil. Believing that the spirits of the dead roamed the burial grounds, these sites were kept well away from where they lived, hence this burial ground's isolated location.

Because of the close proximity of their tribal lands to the white settlement, the Cadigal were one of the first Aboriginal clans to be infected by smallpox. At the end of 1788, records indicate the Cadigal clan numbered 60. Within three years, their numbers were more than halved. By the mid 1800s, the whole surviving aboriginal population from the Sydney area has been forced south into their territory as year by year the white settlement encroached further and further onto tribal lands. In 1880, there were just 26 aborigines living at a mission established by the whites above Frenchman's Bay at La Perouse, the sole survivors of the Cadigal and Birrabirragal peoples.

The Wangal
The Wangal people occupied the area to the west of the Cadigal on the southern shores of the Parramatta River to around Rose Hill including the inner islands of Sydney Harbour. Bennelong, the Aboriginal friend of Gov. Phillip, was a Wangal.

The Wllumattagal
This clan, believed to have numbered no more than 30 persons in 1788, made its home on the north shore from Parramatta to as far east as Mosman Bay but were seen predominantly on the north shore between Milsons Point and Lane Cove. In early records, their name was recorded as Whelmed and Wallumatta, means opposite shore, however, since the suffix "matte" is translated as "place of", the name Wallumatta most probably identifies the locality of the lower north shore as theirs.

During the 1800s, it became a tradition for the government to give each Aborigine a gift of a blanket each Christmas. Commenced by Gov. Macquarie in line with British Government policy to attempt to live as peaceably with the natives as possible, the aborigines from the whole north shore region used to congregate in the coastal caves and overhangs used by the Walumedegala for shelter during the rest of the year. The tradition stopped in the late 1800s when smallpox had so diminished their numbers, no one turned up for their Christmas gift one year.

The Bidjigal
The most hostile of the Aborigines of the Sydney area, their territory has never been clearly defined as early colonial records indicate they occupied territory around Castle Hill. Their hostility came about as a result of their yam crops being dug up and replaced by European cereal crops by the whites when they began moving into the Parramatta area. It was the Bijigals who, under clan leader Pummel, led numerous raids on pioneer settlements in the Parramatta region in the 1800s. Pummel was shot in one such battle, but escaped from hospital and was later seen around where the Gorges River enters Botany Bay.

The Boorooberongal
This clan was first encountered by Governor Phillip in 1791 when he explored the Hawkesbury River. Dwellers of the Richmond/Windsor district, they differed greatly from the coastal groups in that they were skillful tree climbers, spoke a different language and did not observe the same tribal customs (Phillip recorded none of the males had lost a front tooth). Being infrequent visitors to the coast, their diet did not include seafood.

The Cabrogal
They occupied what today is the Cabramatta district. The name Cabramatta is literally translated as "Home of the Cabra". they were also known as the South Creek tribe.

The Gweagal
The most northerly of the Dharawal who, as a language group, lived south beyond the Gorges to Jervis Bay. Occupying a territory which included the southern shores of Botany Bay and the Cronulla-Sutherland Peninsula, it was The Gweagals who witnessed Captain Cook's landing at Kurnell in 1770. Though they enjoyed a similar diet to the Port Jackson Aborigines with seafood at the top of the menu, the 200-strong clan were quite different in appearance, sticking resin in their hair to give it a mop-like appearance.

Aboriginal Art Sites in the Sydney region
It is believed that over 6,000 drawings, most of which are carved into sandstone rock faces, once existed throughout what is now the Sydney metropolitan area, but many have been destroyed, bulldozed or blasted out of existence to make way for farms, bridges and later, suburbs. In most cases, those clearing the land or responsible for it did not know about the art's existence, nor did they have any inkling as to its value as either the last remaining evidence of a new vanished culture, its spiritual and religious importance to the survivors of that culture or as a part of Sydney's heritage. As there has been no one to maintain them for over 2 centuries, many of the examples of rock art which have managed to escape the onslaught of the bulldozer and pick axe have suffered the onslaught of wind, sand and sea erosion, being walked on, driven on and vandalised.
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To protect what is left, the Government has wisely brought all Aboriginal sites in New South Wales under the protection the National Parks & Wildlife Act 1974. Under the act, it is illegal to disturb, damage, deface or destroy any relic, a relic being defined as any deposit, object or material evidence relating to indigenous & non European habitation of New South Wales (not being handicraft made for sale). By definition, this includes middens, habitation sites, rock carvings, rock paintings, scarred trees, stencils (right), stone arrangements, stone implements and tools. Though they have been given legislative protection, there is little known about the best way to manage Aboriginal sites. To western eyes, the ideal would be to turn the maintenance of sites over to the Aboriginal people. This sounds good in theory, however, under Aboriginal law, only select people are permitted to maintain the art at these sites.

Where those select people cannot be found, or if there are no survivors from a particular tribe, no one can touch the art created by and for that tribe. Even so, the art is considered sacred to the Aborigines, so there is reluctance among the Aboriginal communities to maintain the art if it is to turned into something to make money from by showing it to tourists. Consequently, the authorities have adopted a policy of keeping the public in the dark about the location of much of Sydney's Aboriginal sites. The thinking behind it seems to be "what the people don't know about the people can't damage". As the damage caused in the past has occurred mainly as a result of ignorance, some would argue that education of the public is a better way to deal with the problem than maintaining their ignorance. When the public do come across it, and can be vandalised, even unintentionally, as it has no relevance, hence no value to them.

Listed below are a few of the thousands of sites in and around Sydney which have been recorded as containing evidence of occupation by the indigenous people of the Sydney region. In the main, those listed offer easy access to visitors, are often sign posted and/or contain explanations as to what they represent. The list includes sites which have been obliterated through the ravages of time, road and building construction etc. Though no evidence of their existence can be seen today, they are recorded here as they represent the types of sites which existed in their respective locations. For the same reason, some sites which are on private or government property have been listed, however there is no access to these sites. Attempts should not be made to view them other than from the roadside as they are on private property which, if entered without permission, is trespassing. Please respect the privacy of the owners of the properties.

WARNING: These sites contain irreplaceable examples of the art of the indigenous peoples of the Sydney region. The engraving and rock paintings found at these sites are a reminder of a people who once lived in the Sydney region and as such are valuable part of their history and the history of Sydney that will be lost forever if it not treated with respect. Please do not deface or add to the art, as it is part of our heritage. All such sites protected by law, and to deface, modify or remove them in part or in whole is a criminal offence.

Locations of Aboriginal Sites
Click on or tap a region heading to read the description. Click or tap again to hide the region.

Inner West
Iron Cove, near King George V Park: Aboriginal carvings, which are rare in this area due to the scarcity of suitable rock, have been all but obliterated by more recent carvings placed there in colonial times. These carvings appear to have Masonic connections, though suggestions have been made that they may have been placed their in pre-colonial times by Spanish sailors. A shell midden is nearby.

Linley Point: A number of weathered carvings have been engraved onto flat rocks on the west side of the point. There are a number of shelters and middens nearby. Longueville Park, Longueville: Engravings of a fish and an emu are to be found on the left hand side of the park near the waterfront at the end of Stuart Street. The engravings, which have been touched up and painted in recent times, are situated on a flat rock face above the water and have a timber barrier erected around them. The emu motif is thought to have been a totemic figure to the Dharug clan inhabiting this area. It occurs only in a small band along the foreshore on the northern side of the harbour and in the Lane Cove and Parramatta River Catchment areas, and then disappears until re-emerging in Ku-Ring-Gai National Park.

Lower North Shore

Glades Bay Native Gardens, Gladesville: A campsite of the Cammeraigal Aborigines, it contains 11 carvings, the easiest to identify being two jumping kangaroos which are among the best preserved of the few remaining examples of Aboriginal rock art east of the Sydney central business district. Axe grinding grooves can be found on rocks beside a nearby creek. Evidence of Aboriginal occupation can also be found at Looking Glass Bay, Looking Glass Point, and Bill Mitchell Park.

Lane Cove National Park: Over 40 sites have been recorded within the park, however it is known that many of these were on the river bank and were flooded by the building of the weir in 1938. Those that remain include shelters, cave art, engravings, middens and axe grinding grooves. A sunburst motif which survives is the only known example of its kind in the Sydney metropolitan area. Kangaroo or wallaby tracks, etched into a rock face above Browns waterhole, are the only such examples of animal tracks surviving in the Sydney region. A walking track through Fairyland cross a midden. A wombat, a sea creature and axe grinding grooves are carved into rock at the headwaters of Carters Creek.

Balls Head, Wollstonecraft: The outline of a 10m long whale-like creature is carved into rock on the left of the road leading into HMAS Waterhen. The engraving, which is fenced off, includes a man within the shape of the creature. Numerous other large engravings are located on other sections of the rocky outcrop upon which the creature is carved, however these are partly covered by the road, with sections of them having been destroyed when the road was built. During the early days of white settlement, the Wollstonecraft / Waverton area was well populated by Aborigines and this location appears to have been a sacred site, being high on a hill and offering commanding views of the harbour in both directions. These views are now obliterated by the nearby buildings and non-natural vegetation which covers the area. UBD Map 6 Ref H 7.
Smaller engravings, six shell middens, two rock shelters and axe grinding grooves are located near the waterline towards the eastern and western tips of the headland but are not sign posted and may prove difficult to find. One of the shelters contains stencils of small fish and a hand, though they are barely visible these days. Alongside the lookout at the eastern end of the car park is a rockpool used to collect drinking water, and axe grinding grooves beside it.

Berry Island Reserve, Wollstonecraft: Follow the Gadyan Track and learn the story of the Cammeraigal who used the area as a campsite. Sites include numerous middens and a carving of a giant sea creature, a waterhole and axe grinding grooves. Regular walking tours of the Gadyan Track are conducted by the North Sydney Council (Tel 02 - 9936 8100), the guide being the Council's Aboriginal Heritage Officer.

Joseph Bugler Playing Field, Waverton: Traces of hand stencils and engravings are located on the rocks and overhangs above and around the path leading up from the reserve to Larkin Street. As they have been badly eroded and defaced, the inexperienced rock art explorer may have difficulty finding them.

Mosman: 79 known sites within the Mosman municipality have been catalogued though more are believed to exist. These are occupation sites (shelters, middens), religious or ceremonial sites and rock art sites. Many of course have been destroyed or lie under buildings, but many others are assumed by archaeologists to survive in the foreshore bushland. Ashton Park contains rock carvings of animals which are located near the steps going down to the beach on the eastern side of Bradleys Head.

Neutral Bay: next to sandstone cottage in Ben Boyd Road are rock carvings.

Northern Suburbs

Westleigh: A set of engravings are to be found on the Great North Walk bush track near the end of Quarter Sessions Road. Mainly fish and kangaroos, they are located off the main track on a rock face close to the corner of a backyard. Another group, on a large slab of rock, was removed from a nearby housing development site to its present location to save it from destruction. It has an observation ramp leading up to it from Quarter Sessions Road.

Hornsby: Over 100 Aboriginal sites have been recorded in the Hornsby region. These include engravings on sandstone ridges; rock shelters on the valley slopes containing cave paintings or drawing sites and archaeological deposits; open campsites and grinding grooves on valley floors; shell middens along tidal waterways; and scarred trees. West Gordon: A rock shelf in the garden on Bolwara Avenue has a wallaby and 2 curved lines.

Ryde: Some 43 Aboriginal sites are recorded within the Ryde region. The building of roads and residences has seen most destroyed. Cave paintings were once common, but were few in number compared to other areas of Sydney. Few rock engravings have been found or recorded in the Ryde district though it is believed more existed before recording of them first began in the 1860s . A site at Settlers Park near Ryde bridge has a carving of a single flying duck which is rare for the Sydney area, and another carving representing a throwing weapon. Winston Hills: An open campsite has been excavated and studied, the results suggesting an occupation date of between 5 000 and 6 000 years. Clan of the Dharug tribe occupied the Darling Mills Creek valley where the campsite is located.

Goanna, Amercia Bay Track, Ku-Ring-Gai Chase National Park

Ku-Ring-Gai Chase National Park: This Park contains the largest collection of aboriginal art in the Sydney region. Over 200 groups of engravings are recorded. Most of the 1,110 individual figures have been carved onto horizontal sandstone slabs and vary in size from a few centimetres to 15 metres long. They include animals, fish, artefacts, people and ancestral beings. Three main sites - The Echidna Engraving Site, The Basin Engraving Site and The Elvina Engraving Site - are located off West Head Road between Elvina Nature Trail and West Head are all easily accessible and well signposted (UBD Map 77 Ref Q 15/B 8/F 9).

A man, a woman and the moon, Basin Track, Ku-Ring-Gai Chase National Park

The art at the Basin Engraving Site is the easiest to view and recognise, the objects carved there include fish, a whale, male and female humans, boomerangs and a row of jumping wallabies. A few hand stencils (above), which are now barely visible due to weathering, can be viewed in an overhang on the Red Hands walking track near West Head. A large midden can be seen on the Sphinx track to Bobbin Head (UBD Map 134 Ref N 9). Engraving may also be seen on the Bobbin Head Road 200m inside the North Turramurra park entrance (UBD Map 134 Ref L 8).

Berowra Waters: On the eastern shoreline on vertical rockface are a wallaby and a circular object on the wall of a small rock shelter. 10 metres upstream are a shark, an eel, part of a kangaroo, parts of other worn figures at a place known as Shark Rock. 100 metres upstream on a vertical rock face are figures of headless men with 5 fish superimposed on the body and part of another worn object.

Moonie Moonie Point, Hawkesbury River: Flat rock surfaces extending 200 metres along the edge of the water on the west side of the point within the grounds of Peat Island Mental Hospital is a 3 metre long kangaroo. It has been damaged by road construction. A pipe has been laid across it. The main group 250 metres north is of men, an emu, an eel, 2 small wallabies (now worn away) and a kangaroo. A partly covered stingray is one of many carvings mainly covered over by road construction. On he west side of Big Bay on Moonie Moonie Point on a flat rock are a 12 metres long long, part of a kangaroo and unidentified lines that are all weathered.

Brisbane Water National Park: There are over 350 sites recorded in the Gosford region, mostly engravings of animals, birds, marine creatures, animals, bird tracks, human footsteps, male and female figures, hunting weapons and ancestral beings. Bulgandry: 17 engravings and numerous axe grinding grooves are visible 2 km south west of Kariong off Woy Woy Road. The site is well sign posted.

Devil's Rock, Maroota: In an area near Wiseman's Ferry and adjacent to the extreme north-west corner of Marramara National Park are 12 groups of engravings. These include a ceremonial stone arrangement, 4 sets of axe grinding grooves, 3 rock shelters, 2 scarred trees and an open air campsite. Access to the site, via Laughtondale Gully Road, is restricted, and subject to special arrangement with the local National Parks and Wildlife Service office. Main rock platform includes 83 engravings and 54 axe grinding grooves. Engravings include boomerangs, fish, eels, human and bird tracks, a shield and boomerangs. Also of interest are motifs of European contact, which are rare in the Sydney region. These include a sailing ship, a man in a top hat and a woman in a crinoline dress, believed to have been carved during the colonial era.

Muogamarra Nature Reserve: Numerous examples of rock art, including whale feasting, can be found on rock faces beside Muogamarra Creek. Access is via a section of old convict built road on the Great North Walk beyond Berowra Waters on a large, flat rock shelf above Bird Gully near where the road meets the Bird Gully Track. Bouddi National Park, Broken Bay: There are many sites throughout the park, particularly around Hardys, Rileys, Fisherman and Empire Bays.

Mangrove Creek, Spencer: Many sites have been recorded within Dharug National Park. Those around the lower and middle reaches of Mangrove Creek between Mangrove Creek and Spencer beside or off the walking tracks are the most accessible.

Northern Beaches

Gumbooya Reserve, Allambie Heights: 68 rock carvings including fish, hunting implements, a dolphin and a large human figure which appears to be inside or on top of a whale. The carvings, which are well sign posted and fenced, are in a location which offers panoramic views up and down the coast, as well as inland, an indication it was in all probability a sacred site.

Warriewood: numerous engravings, the least worn being a series of eels and a spear, are to be found near Narrabeen Creek.

Palm Beach: Many of the rocky headlands along the northern beaches contain rock carvings of some description, however most are faded due to exposure to wind, rain and surf. The engravings of fish, human footprints, a goanna, a boomerang, and some fish, located at the southern end of Palm Beach, are some of the easiest to find. Another site exists on private property on Pacific Road. Located high on a ridge and offering extensive views to the ocean and Pittwater, the site contains an engraving of a man with a fish inside the outline.

Eastern Suburbs

Point Piper: A set of carvings, being one of the last remaining 6 of 74 such sites known to have existed on the point, have been preserved through property owners in Wunnulla Road building their house around them. Still in pristine condition, they include a whale, fish and several men. Access is gained through a trap door under the house, however, being on private property, they are not open for inspection to the public. An engraving of a man wearing a ruff around his neck, and armour on his knees and elbows, may still exist on a neighbouring property. Australian inventor and pioneer aviator Lawrence Hargraves, who once lived on the property containing the site, did extensive studies of the carvings and concluded the engravings proved that Spanish sailors, possibly from the "Lope de Vega" which sailed for The Great Southland from Jakarta in 1524 never to be heard of again, visited the Sydney area long before James Cook (1770).
On the extremity of the point 6 metres above water level there was a section of undulating surfaced rock which terminated with a large bounder-like rock. Across the surface of this rock was a 8 metre long whale. In its centre was a small circle with badly weathered fish on the north and south side of it. Two other fish were near the whale's tale, then a shield and another fish. 15 metres south east on a boulder like rock was a carving of a man with arms and legs outspread dance fashion with a figure of a deity. On a flat surface 10 metres further on was a kangaroo. 2 metres south east are two fish with footsteps across them (partly covered by soil). Below the rock in a shelter is a midden and the carving of a kangaroo.

Milk Beach, Vaucluse: Fish, shields and human figures have been carved into the rocks near the waterline. Often covered by sand, they are best viewed after heavy rain or at low tide. The remains of two hand stencils and a painting of a boomerang are situated in an overhang between Shark Bay and Bottle & Glass Point. They are not sign posted and due to weathering, are hard to find. Various engravings in the area surrounding Greycliffe House are known to National Parks & Wildlife rangers located there, but they do not divulge information on their whereabouts and rock art hunters must find them for themselves.

South Head: Cut on the expanse of flat bare rock at the top of the cliff on which the Hornby Lighthouse and cottages were built is the remnant of a group of carvings, possibly damaged by building operations. At the north end of the group is a fish, towards the middle of the group is a small whale, a 2 metres long fish and fragments of a wallaby. Only a fish remains on the rock facing North Head alongside the pill box next to the lighthouse. On the south east side of the lighthouse is a kangaroo and a fish. South of the lighthouse was a swordfish, the original pathway cut off its snout. The path has since been widened and the remainder of the fish has been buried under section of the path and grass. Towards the harbour side of the headland cut on several small patches of rock and level with the surface of the ground are two skates and a small shark. Lady Bay, South Head: On a ledge of rock extending across the head of Lady Bay a few feet higher than the top of the masonry wall are the engravings of 2 large fish and several, very weathered ones on the rocks above the water to the south. On top of the rocky point at the south end of Lay Bay are portions of a kangaroo, other animals and a shield. All are badly weathered.

Watsons Bay: On the low ridge on the south side of Vaucluse Bay on a small patch of rock are weathered images of kangaroos. On the northern side of the small bay at the end of Keele Street is a boulder-like rock with the remnants of a fish engraved on it. 180 metres south on a narrow surface of rough rock nearly level with the ground, some 40 metres from the beach was the figure of a man. In a rock shelter to the south and on the beach, 40 metres from the figure of a man was two figures cut into an overhanging face of rock, one being a turtle, the other a man or deity.

Rodney Reserve, Dover Heights: On a small patch of rock 14 metres from the sea cliff in the area of the reserve off Raleigh Street was the figure of a man in warlike or corroborree gesture.

Merriverie Rocks engravings site

Murriverie Rocks, Williams Park, North Bondi: Located beyond the golf course on the rocks above the ocean, the site features a number of Aboriginal engravings, including sharks, fish, men and women. Many of the carvings were re-grooved at the local council's request in 1951. To their north-east is another group, some of which appear to be of non-Aboriginal origin. One carving in this group is of a Spanish sailing ship. Aviation pioneer Lawrence Hargrave extensively researched the engraving and concluded it is of a Spanish caravel and not a British sailing ship as was once thought. He believed it was made by the crew of the Santa Yzabel which left Spain in 1595 to establish a colony in the Solomon Islands and is evidence that Spanish vessels sailed the east coast of Australia long before Captain Cook visited our shores in 1770. Many historians view this explanation as more fanciful than likely, but whatever its origin, the carvings are definitely not Aboriginal. UBD Map 258 Ref C 1.

Two fish and the moon, Ben Buckler

Ben Buckler, North Bondi: There are numerous examples of Aboriginal rock art on the cliffs above the ocean at North Bondi. At Ben Buckler, five examples once existed, but a representation of a turtle about 1.5 metres long is the only one that remains complete. It was re-grooved by was re-grooved by the Waverley Council in 1964, as were the engravings further north behind the Golf Course). A whale and three elongated figures have either been buried by silt or destroyed when the path and staircase were built.

Signal Hill, Watsons Bay: On south side of Signal Hill Fortifications on the sea cliff at its highest point is the carving of a fish. At the lower portion of The Gap, on a ledge commanding views right up the harbour to Garden Island in the area where the land slopes gently towards the harbour are the remnants of a series of engravings. These included a hammerhead shark (a characteristic inhabitant of Port Jackson), a bandicoot, wallaby and fish to the north. Near them were a large kangaroo and four wallabies, two of which have been completely weathered away.

Centennial Park: On a flat rock in the saddle of the ridge between Fox Studios and Centennial Park on an old cart crossing (now Darwall Street) below a quarry was a group of engravings comprising of 2 boomerangs, a kangaroo or wallaby and a waddy.

Mackenzies Point engraving

Mackenzies Point, Tamarama: A large sea creature, possibly a whale, is carved into a large rock above the cliffs. UBD Map 258 Ref P 6.

Coogee Bay: On rock in about the middle of the recreational reserve on the north of of the bay were four small fish.

Long Bay: On the north side of the bay 140 metres from the sandy cliff at the head of the bay was a carving of a sunfish. The carving was on rocks on the foreshore.

Little Head, Little Bay: On the top of Little Head north of the point and 15 metres from the trig station was a small wallaby and a fish. 200 metres to the south east on a low flat rock above the sea beach were carvings of a shoal of bream.

Bumborah Point, Phillip Bay: behind Botany Cemetery on a smooth rocky surface 6 metres above the high water mark are 2 large fish 5 metres long and several small fish. Only remnants of one of the large fish remain today.

Maroubra Bay: On the hillside on the north side of the bay on the coast where a foot track passes 200 metres south of Athol Park House was a 6.5 metres long shark, a man and a human footprint on the west side of the shark.

North Harbour

Beauty Point: A cave on the shores of Beauty Point on Middle Harbour, known as Red Hand Cave, contains a gallery of hand stencils painted with red ochre.

Cammeray: A rock shelter, smoked by thousands of cooking fires, contains the ashes of fires below the surface of the park which was filled in to create the playing fields.

The Esplanade, Balmoral Beach: A rock shelter, which is open to public view, has been preserved at the southern end of The esplanade, Balmoral opposite the swimming pool.

Taylors Bay: Rock carvings of kangaroos are visible on the rock face at the head of the bay. These are rare examples of carvings on a vertical face in the Sydney area.

Obelisk Bay: Rock carvings of fish and hunting implements have been found near the remains of a shell midden.

Dobroyd Head: Axe grinding grooves and rock carvings of footprints, known as mundoes (pronounced mun-doe-eez), have been found on the rocks below Scenic Drive.

Grotto Point engravings site

Washaway Beach, Grotto Point: Engraving site contains numerous illustrations of a small kangaroo, a large kangaroo with tail buried, a large fish, a dolphin and an emu. The engravings are marked by heavy timber guard rails which make them easy to find. The engraving of the large kangaroo with its tail buried is not considered to be a genuine Aboriginal carving.

Reef Beach, Clontarf: Fish and shields have been carved into the tessellated rocks. These carvings are badly weathered and may only be visible only after a storm. A midden stretches the whole length of the beach. Visitors are warned that this is used by locals as a nudist beach. UBD Map 197 Ref E 13.

Forty Baskets Beach, Balgowlah Heights: Hand stencils and carvings of a kangaroo, emu, shark, fish, boomerang are well preserved in a rock shelter near the beach, however they are not sign posted and are not easy to find.

Little Sirius Cove, Manly: A shell midden can be found at the north-east corner of the cove. UBD Map 216 Ref Q 13.

Quarantine Station, North Head: Numerous sites can be found around Quarantine and Store Beaches. These include hand stencils in rock shelters and engravings, mainly of fish, below an escarpment east of Constitution Monument. Red ochre drawings of three kangaroos have been recorded at nearby Store Beach. Access to the Station is restricted to organised tours only. UBD Map 218 Ref C 1.

Middle Harbour
There are 76 known Aboriginal sites on the shores of Middle Harbour. A combination of rock shelters, middens and rock art, they appear around Castle Cove, Castlecrag, Middle Cove and Northbridge. The hand stencils above, some of which are not genuine Aboriginal art, are in an overhang near the Roseville Bridge.

Bantry Bay engravings site

Bantry Bay: The most extensive single group of carvings in the Sydney metropolitan area are located on a rocky outcrop on the hillside above Bantry Bay and accessed via the Engravings Track alongside Wakehurst Parkway 400m south of the end of Bantry Bay Road. There are some 82 figures, including two mundoes, people, animals, fish, shields, a canoe, a basket and bag, boomerangs, circles, stone axes and clubs, snakes and a whale. One group of figures shows two men, one of whom is carrying bark canoes. As they are on flat open ground, sadly these carvings have suffered greatly from exposure to the weather and many have faded so badly there are only recognisable to the trained eye. Other engravings occur in the surrounding bush land but they are not easy to find as they are not marked and often in locations where fallen leaves and other bush debris have covered them. Middens and rock shelters can be seen on the shores of the bay. Tool sharpening grooves have been found near the engravings and creek beds.

Manly Vale: A large selection of carvings can be found on flat rocks beside a creek which runs into the Manly Reservoir halfway along its length. They depict a whale, fish, human figures, kangaroos, a man wearing a body belt (believed to represent a spiritual being) and another man spearing a fish. These and other sites, including campsites and axe grinding grooves are featured on the Gulgadya Muru Grass Tree Self Guided Walking Track around the dam.


Undercliffe: The most important surviving artwork site in the environs of Cooks River at Undercliffe contains 23 white hand stencils, two of them with forearms. At the site there are also two foot stencils, which are rare in the Sydney region, and an extensive midden. The site is on private property and has no public access.

La Perouse: A carving of a large sea creature, possibly a whale, and its calf, was once clearly visible on the rocks at the southern end of Frenchmans Bay. Identified as being 120 metres south west of the La Perouse monument, the whale is 10 metres long and the calf half that length. Little of the carving is visible today, thanks to wind, water and foot erosion, being located at a spot which has been frequented by fishermen and visitors for over a hundred years. A carving of a shark and two unidentified objects, possibly weapons or tools such as an axe, are known to have existed 180 metres away. On a boulder like rock 30 metres north east of the fish were two carvings of boomerangs, one with a reverse curve. Rocky Point, Sans Souci: 3 fish and a short V line are still visible below the high water mark on rocks on the south-west side of the point. These engravings are well preserved but are often covered by sand and/or water.

Georges River: Rock art, axe grinding grooves and middens are common around the bays of the Georges River. Middens are still visible at Alfords Point, Connells Point, Lime Kiln Bay, the largest midden being on Jewfish Bay, Oatley Park.

Sylvania: An Aboriginal Rock Shelter exists on a property on the Georges River waterfront. Located halfway up a sandstone cliff face, the midden contained shells of rock oysters, Sydney cockles and pink frilled murex. Human teeth and parts of two skeletons were found on the site in 1982. The teeth were 2 molars and one premolar which probably belonged to a teenager judging by how unworn they are. A basalt hand axe also found was not made of local stone so it must have been made by another group of Aboriginals from another area and then traded. It was a common practice for the local community to trade axe blanks from further down the coast, usually from around Batemans Bay. On the site there are also ashes and charcoal raked out of cooking fires. There are many places in the northward facing overhang where water drips from the roof of the shelter, even when there hasn't been rain for weeks. Under one such drip there is a sandstone 'bowl' where the Aborigines probably collected water at a rate of 1.5 litres an hour. There are rock shelves which appear to have been used to store things. They are smeared with clay to make them smooth, the finger marks are still visible. On the wall are several child's and adult's hand stencils made by blowing red ochre. Like the basalt axe, the ochre would have been brought in from elsewhere.

Dharawal state conservation area

Dharawal state conservation area: The overhangs near the creeks of the Upper Nepean River in this locality are full of rock art that differs considerably from that found in the inner Sydney region. The art here appears more recent - some believe much of it was produced in the colonial era. The medium used is charcoal rather than the more traditional red and white ochres, which indicates the art was more spontaneous and possible produced "on the run".

Kurnell: Shell middens exist on the shores of Botany Bay near where Lt. James Cook came ashore in 1770. Elsewhere in the Kurnell section of Botany Bay National Park are middens, burial sites and at least two engravings of fish and footprints.

Lucas Heights: Spear sharpening grooves are visible on the rocks surrounding a creek bed in bushland opposite the entrance to the AAEC Research Establishment on New Illawarra Road. The area is believed to have been a "bora" where tribal meetings and ceremonies were held. More sites located in the area contain engravings of a wallaby with young in its pouch, and what is believed to be a koala, however public access is forbidden as they are within the Holsworthy Military Area.

Scarred tree, Heathcote National Park

Heathcote: A rock shelf in a front yard in Short Street, Heathcote, contains a carving of a 2 metre long snake. There is much evidence of Aboriginal occupation in Heathcote National Park though most is not clearly identified to protect it from vandals. Of particular interest is a rock shelter used by Aborigines located beside the Bullawaring Track between Kingfisher Pool and Myuna Pools. The shelter, its roof blackened by the cooking fires of the Aborigines, once contained hand stencils on its walls but these have been obliterated by graffiti. Alongside the overhang is a rare surviving example of a scarred tree from which the bark has been cut away to form a shield (above). The shape of the shield is visible even though the tree is old and has been affected by bushfires.

Waterfall: On the north side of Yanagong Street 70 metres west of Princes Highway on a small patch of rock level with the ground between the carriageway and the road fence are 2 kangaroos. 2.4 km north of Waterfall 700 metres north west of the Trig Station on the west side of Princes Highway on a large rock at the south west end of the saddle 60 metres west of the transmission line are 3 large mythical creatures crossed by kangaroo tracks. Adjoining them are bird tracks and a bird in flight. The site has views to Heathcote Creek.

Darkes Forest: 65 metres south west of Old Illawarra Road leading from Darkes Forest to Liverpool 100 metres west of where the road crosses Woronora River on flat topped rock outcrops are 6 figures - kangaroos and 6 human figures. 20 metres west are 2 similar human figures. 3.2 km north west of Darkes Forest post Office north east of the main road on a rocky outcrop on the southern side of the head of the creek in a marshy area are 2 men, footprints, and 10 metres south, a kangaroo.

Port Hacking

Burraneer Point, Burraneer: 17 sites have been recorded on the Burraneer Point, however most are now on private property and cannot be accessed. A fish is carved into a rock at the Recreation Reserve at the end of Woolooware Road South (below). The rock is not in its natural state, having been moved to its present location during construction of the reserve's car park. A vertical rock art site with numerous well preserved engravings is located on Burraneer Point. Access by land to the site is not possible as it is on private property, however it is visible by boat and is pointed out to passengers on certain cruises of Port Hacking. Burrells Boatshed, near the Wahgunyah Cliffs on Gunnamatta Bay, was the site of many fine rock carvings which were destroyed when the boatshed was built in 1920.

Darook Park, Cronulla: Numerous rock carvings occur on private property overlooking the park. In the park itself, there are many rocks containing axe grinding grooves and numerous middens. An eel and a small animal (koala?) are carved on the sloping rear wall of a rock shelter on Gunnamatta Bay. Many overhangs on the shores of the bay are stained by the smoke from Aboriginal cooking fires.

Lilli Pilli Point: 3 groups of rock carvings and numerous middens have been recorded at numerous points around the Lilli Pilli peninsular, particularly the point which can be accessed by a walking track (they are not sign posted, however). Middens can also be seen at other points along the shores of the Port Hacking River, including Little Moon and Great Moon Bays, Yowie Bay, Gymea Bay, Beauty Point and Greys Point.

Gymea Bay: Rock shelters used by Aborigines are found around the shores of Gymea Bay. Flints, a skull and bone implements have been found by archaeologists during an excavation on Yowie Point.

Royal National Park
Hundreds of sites have been recorded in the Sutherland district, those within the National Park's boundaries being the easiest to find and access. Middens are visible at Curracurrong Cove and Era and Garie beaches.

Jibbon Headland engravings site

Jibbon Headland: Engravings are visible on the walking track from Bundeena to Marley Head and numerous whales and sea creatures are carved into rock on Jibbon headland. The latter are well signposted with descriptions and interpretations of the art. They include a wobbegong sharks, fish, a whale, boomerangs and shields.

Audley: alongside the road from Audley to Fishermans Bay 100 metres south of turnoff to Costens Bay are engravings a flat rock surfaces scattered throughout the scrub on the ridge. These include a man with a three-pronged head-dress and circles and ovals 20 metres to the north. 130 metres west of the road on the southern edge of a large, level rock surface are two whales facing each other. 80 metres north is another whale in the centre of a large rock surface sloping down to the north. Both sites have commanding views to Port Hacking and South West Arm.

Cabbage Tree Creek: There is considerable evidence of Aboriginal occupation along the banks of this creek and The Basin. It is believed that the members of the Dharawal people lived here as late as the 1870s, making it one of the last areas in the Sydney region to have been occupied by the Aborigines in their pre-colonial lifestyle. This area was once rich in mddens, rock engravings and cave paintings, but many have been lost or are disappearing through vandalism, pollution or erosion by the elements. Axe grinding grooves and engravings of fish and animals are still visible. Numerous overhangs were used as campsites, as evidenced by their smoke-darkened roofs. Hand stencils are now rare but middens are plenteous on the shores of The Basin.

Wattamolla: Sites at Wattamolla Beach have been excavated by archaeologists and show it to have been a specialised fishing site. Between Wattamolla Road and Curracurrong Creek are two kangaroos. On the north side of the camping area overlooking the Wattamolla Inlet is a 1 metre long fish and the remains of human figures that have been defaced by vandals. 50 metres west of the coast road at a point 2.6 km south east of the Wattamolla turnoff are a number of rock faces with carvings. These include 3 male figures, 6 men in a line, and very faint axe grooves.

Curracurrang: The Curracurrang area has eight rock shelters, some of which have been excavated, revealing evidence of occupation, and two small groups of engravings, both sign posted, are located on a small outcrop at the extreme north-western end of a large rock platform about 150m west of the fire trail. A shelter at Curracurrang is one of the oldest sites found in the Sydney region, showing evidence of Aboriginal habitation up to 7,500 years ago.

South West

Sandy Bay: Numerous Aboriginal cultural sites occur around Harris Creek in Sydney's south west. At Sandy point there is a rock shelter with red hand stencils. There were originally over 20 but erosion and vandalism has resulted in most of them becoming damaged or erased.

Holsworthy Military Area: The Holsworthy bushland retains many indigenous sites and has been referred to as "Sydney's Kakadu". There are more than 500 significant Tharawal sites in the area including campsites, tool making sites and rock art. The art is mostly engravings of hands, boomerangs and animals. The main difference between the Holsworthy art samples and others in the Sydney region is that red and white pigment appears to have been used equally for hand stencils while in other samples red clearly dominated. Charcoal, however, was the most commonly used pigment for artwork. The area also features a number of engraving sites. All of these are well preserved and appear to be telling a story. The presence of the firing range since 1912 has restricted public access and urban development, resulting in most of the sites having been preserved in pristine condition. The majority of sites are located around the many watercourses which pass through the area. Located on a key travel route for trade purposes between the Cabrogal clan of the Dharug Tribe, which was centred on the Cumberland Plain, and the Tharawal on the south coast. The sites recorded at Holsworthy include rock shelters, ochre stencils and carvings of animals and spirit figures. They are contained in 219 shelters with art and/or deposit, one shelter deposit, 69 axe grinding groove sites, five engraving sites, eleven grooves and engravings sites and one open site. Featured motifs include red and white stencilled hands, feet, boomerangs, wombats, macropods, fish, eels, turtles, bats, emus, birds, lizards and other animals. The open campsite is where tools were made and exposes an indigenous industry with artefacts from the coast and up to the mountains having been found there. Of particular interest is an Aboriginal carving of a four-masted sailing ship, believed to depict James Cook's Endeavour, a rare record of exceptional interest relating to the earliest contact between the new arrivals and the indigenous Australians.

Campbelltown region: 184 items at 27 sites have been recorded in the Campbelltown region, particularly around Georges River, Harris Creek and Mt. Gilead. A further 95 items at 20 sites have been recorded on the east side of the Georges River around Williams Creek and Punchbowl Creek. These include people, bulls, lizards, dogs (dingoes), mythological figures, birds wallabies, humans and emu tracks.

Wedderburn: Cubbitch Barta National Area and the O'Hares Creek National Estate Area have both been recognised for their rich Aboriginal heritage value. There is at least one scarred tree. It is unusual for such a tree to survive in the Sydney Basin, especially in an area where agriculture has been practised for over one hundred years. Seven rock art caves, three grinding groove sites and one dwelling cave have been found.

Bull Cave, Minto Heights: As well as kangaroos, human figures and 11 mundoes (footprints) in red ochre, the cave paintings here depict a group of large mammals which resemble bulls. Researchers believe the paintings are genuinely Aboriginal, that they were drawn after 1788 and depict the progeny of cattle which escaped from the colony of Sydney in 1788. These cattle were found at Cow Pastures, which is close to Bulls Cave, by the first white settlers in the Macarthur district 15 years later after their escape. Sadly, the art in this and other overhangs in the area has been badly damaged by vandals.

Broughton Pass Aboriginal Massacre Site, Appin: By July, 1813 Europeans had begun to encroach on Dharawal land, having established farms in the Appin area. While the Dharawal tried to continue to live peacefully, Aborigines from other areas were also in the vicinity, having been displaced from their traditional lands, placing pressure on food supplies and increasing tension. Gov. Macquarie had endeavoured to abide by the British Government's instructions to ensure that British subjects attempt to live in 'amity and kindness' with the indigenous population. However, between 1814 and 1816 relations between Aborigines and Europeans in the Appin area became hostile, perhaps exacerbated by a severe drought which further increased pressures on the scarce food supplies. In May, 1814 three members of the militia fired on Aboriginals on two farms at Appin, killing a boy. This led to retaliation by the Aborigines, followed by further violence by whites. Over the next two years hostilities escalated and came to a head in March 1816, when members of the Gundangara attacked settlers, killing some and destroying property. It was in response to these attacks that Macquarie felt compelled to 'inflict terrible and exemplary punishments' on the Aborigines. He ordered three military detachments of the 46th Regiment, under the command of Capt. Wallis to be dispatched to Windsor, Liverpool and the Cowpastures to deal with the 'Natives' by 'punishing and clearing the country of them entirely, and driving them across the mountains.' Early one morning he and his men came across the Dharawal men's camp at Appin. They slaughtered the men and cut off the heads of fourteen elders to take back to Sydney. While Wallis returned to Sydney, civilians, including stockmen, remained and continued to hunt down the Dharawal. They found the camp where women and children were staying, shot or trampled them under their horses' hooves and drove them over the cliffs of Broughton Pass. The massacre annihilated the Dharawal people destroying their way of life and social structure. There numbers had already been decimated by disease and hostilities since European occupation but after the massacres of 1816 it is estimated that there were less than 30 remaining. Broughton Pass is located 5.5 km south west of Appin on the road to Picton.

The Kurrajong and Dooligah Trees, Mt. Annan Botanic Gardens: Two trees of significance to the Dharawal Aboriginal people are situated in the Yandel'ora area of Mt. Annan Botanic Garden. The trees formed a strong association with the way of life, customs, traditions and philosophies of the Aboriginal population of south-eastern Australia. The location of the trees within the traditional lawmaking area of Yandel'ora demonstrates their role in teaching children the laws of their group. The Dooligah tree is a particularly rare example because it is over 500 years old and demonstrates the survival of a story dating from long before European contact, being associated with the Watun Goori legend of the Dharawal people.

Lake Gilinganadum and Lake Nadungamba, Mt. Annan Botanic Gardens: Located in the north-west section of Mt. Annan Botanic Garden, these artificial lakes, created from dams remnant from the pastoral era and created in a creek and wetland system, have significance in local Aboriginal culture in that the site has deep associations with the lawmaking and dispute resolution practices of the Aboriginal peoples of south-eastern Australia. It was the only major inter-tribal lawmaking site in South-Eastern Australia and was a meeting place for Aboriginal groups from all over that region. The Aboriginal names of the lakes mean, 'lake of the frog' and 'lake of the child' respectively. The area in which the lakes are located is known by the Dharawal people as Yandel'ora, meaning 'the Land of Peace between Peoples'.

Menangle Eel Farm: 2 hectares of systematic pondage on Lyre Bird Creek, a minor tributary of the Nepean, the Menangle eel farm was used for eel farming by the local Aborigines. It is a rare example of sustainable farming practised by Aboriginal people, as opposed to hunting and gathering activities, their normal practice, which represented by sites such as the Brewarrina Fish Traps. The eel farm provided an essential food supply for the large cyclical population which took up extended residence in the area over 3 to 4 year cycles and is thus associated with the traditional way of life of the Aboriginal population and their occupation of the area. While the activity of eel farming is no longer practised, the site is important to descendants of the Dharawal because of its association with their ancestors and as evidence of their way of life and occupation of the land.

The Blue Mountains

Walls Cave, Blackheath: An economic site where traces of aboriginal occupation has been found. Evidence still remaining includes scraping grooves. King's Table, Wentworth Falls: The western spur contains 84 axe grinding grooves. 40 grooves are visible on the eastern spur's rocky top 400m south-west of the King's Table trig point. A nearby rock shelter has some rock art, mainly a pair of emu's feet.

Red Hands Cave, near Glenbrook: Dozens of paintings, mainly hand stencils, are visible 10 mins. walk from the Red Hands picnic area. The paintings are protected by a perspex screen. Woodford/Glenbrook: 57 sites, many of which were ceremonial and contain rock engravings and stone arrangements, occur on the ridge line running north and south from Woodford between Linden and Glenbrook. Ticehurst Park, Springwood: A set of engravings tell the story of an emu hunt.

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