The Names of Sydney: Suburbs H to L

Haberfield - name of the property of Richard Stanton after the English branch of his family bearing that name. Early history- was part of a 480 acre grant to a former officer of the NSW Corps, Nicholas Bayly. He named the property Sunning Hill Farm, from which the name Summer Hill, which was also part of Bayly's farm, is derived. What is now Haberfield was next known as Dobroyde Farm by its next owner, Simeon Lord, who purchased it in 1826. That name has been retained in Dobroyd Point. It became known as Ramsay's Bush as the land was given as a dowry to Lord's daughter, Sarah, when she married Dr. David Ramsay. The present name was first used in the early 1900s when developer Richard Stanton adopted it for a 10,000 home garden suburb he was creating which is Haberfield today. Haberfield Street Names

Hammondville - named after Anglican Canon R. BS Hammond. He established Hammondville in 1937 as a place where reasonably priced housing could be supplied for young families suffering unemployment. Hammond's scheme consisted of 110 cottages. At the time, Hammond was rector of St Barnabas Church, Broadway, where he instituted the "sermon in a sentence" on the church noticeboard, a practice which continues today.

Harbord / Harbord West - named in honour of Cecilia Harbord, the wife of the governor of NSW from 1885 to 1890, Lord Carrington, Charles Robert Wynn-Carrington, 1st Marquess of Lincolnshire. Brief history: The first land grant here was made in 1818 to Thomas Bruin. The area was subdivided in the land boom of the 1880s into various estates, including Freshwater Heights and Curl Curl Heights. Freshwater was adopted for the whole area and remained in use until 1912 when the Manly Council, with the support of some local residents, began lobbying for a new name. The area had developed a bad reputation as a place where people of dubious character frequented on weekends. The name Harbord was adopted in 1923. The desire for a name change was not unanimous, however, and many residents refused to stop using the original name which explains why the suburb is known as Harbord but the beach is still known as Freshwater.

Harris Park - named after John Harris, surgeon of the New South Wales Corps.
Brief history: John Harris arrived as surgeon to the NSW Corps in 1790 and was granted land near James Ruse's Experimental Farm at Parramatta which he later purchased. Farming was practised on the land until the 1870s when the land was subdivided and sold as town lots under the name Harris Park Estate.

Hassall Grove - named after Thomas Hassall, a Church of England clergyman, grazier and magistrate. Hassall was the eldest son of Rowland and Elizabeth Hassall, members of the Duff missionary expedition of 1796.
Brief history: this locality is part of what was the original suburb of Blacktown, that was was set aside in 1821 as a home for the Aborigines of the Sydney region who no longer had access to their tribal lands. Though Thomas Hassall lived in Camden and not here, the name was given to the area as he was the Anglican Church clergyman for the area until 1829.

Haymarket - the area was first known as Brickfield as it was here, on the banks of a small creek which flowed into Cockle Bay (Darling Harbour), that clay suitable for brick making was found by the First Fleeters in March 1788 and a rudimentary brick and pottery works established. Brickfield was the colony's first settlement outside of the Sydney town centre, the row of huts alongside the creek formed what was later to become Hay Street. The colony's second bridge was built over the creek at a point where Pitt and Hay Streets intersect. The road which crossed the bridge, which became the southern end of Pitt Street, was the beginning of Parramatta Road. In the 1850s, part of the surrounding land was turned into a quarry, some of the blocks from which were used in the construction of St Mary's Cathedral.

Heathcote - named by Sir Thomas Mitchell in 1835 in honour of a fellow officer during the Peninsular Wars (1809-14). The village here was originally called Bottle Forest. It was surveyed in 1842 and is now East Heathcote. The name Heathcote was given in 1887 to the home of Isaac Harber, a brick manufacturer, which he built here. Today an outer suburb of Sydney, it has retained much of its natural environment, a fact reflected in many street names which recall the natural flora of the area.

Hebersham - named to honour Bishop Reginald Heber (1783-1836) of Calcutta. The area was part of a grant of grazing lands leased to the Church of England and was thus named because NSW was within his parish. Initially, the church invited four settlers to occupy the Church land free for seven years as it was unable to attract tenants to the land.

Heckenberg - named after the Heckenberg family who settled in the area in the 1930s. Heckenberg was one of the new suburbs of the Housing Commission's Green Valley development scheme near Liverpool between 1961 and 1965 which saw thousands of new homes replacing dairy farms, market gardens and poultry farms.

Henley - named after the English Henley-on-Thames . The naming of most geographical areas along the river used place names of Anglo-Celtic origin. Interestingly, there are many place names that replicate those on the River Thames around London. Henley is one and, on the opposite bank, the suburb of Chiswick is another.

Hewitt - named after a street of the same name in the area, which itself was probably originally named after an early settler.

Hillsdale - named to honour Patrick Darcy Hills, New South Wales Minister for Local Government in 1961, when the suburb was separated from neighbouring Matraville. Hillsdale was part of a large tract of land allocated to the Church and Schools Corporation which was to use income from the land to support clergy and teachers. After reverting to the the Crown, the land was re-allocated in 1917 for the re-settlement of returned soldiers from World War I, it being divided between Randwick and Botany municipalities. Following years of dispute between the two councils, the State Government intervened in 1961, allocating one section to the Randwick Council and the other to Botany. The Botany section was originally going to be named Gilmore in honour of Australian poet Dame Mary Gilmore (1864-1962), however a postal locality named Gilmore already existed so the name Hillsdale was selected instead. It is not known whether the change of heart over the name had anything to do with Dame Mary Gilmore's death which occurred within a few months of the decision having been made.

Hinchinbrook - in 1986 the Liverpool Council decided to change the Hoxton Park Green Valley boundary and to develop the area set aside by this change into a new suburb. The name Woodside was considered but as there was already a Woodside in Victoria and South Australia. Council also considered Hoxton Heights; but decided on Hinchinbrook, after the creek which runs through the area. Hinchinbrook Creek ran though the property of Barron Field, the Judge of the Supreme Court and Chief Justice of the Colony from 1816 to 1824. Field called his property Hinchinbrook. None of the original Hinchinbrook lies within the new suburb bearing its name. It is not certain where the name Hinchinbrook originated, however it was the name of the estate of John Montague, Earl of Sandwich (above right), and was also given as the name of an island of the Great Barrier Reef by Captain Phillip Parker King in 1819.

Holroyd - named after Arthur Todd Holroyd, a migrant from Britain via New Zealand who entered parliament in 1863. Holroyd is one of the smallest localities in the Sydney metropolitan area and, until the 1970s, consisted only of a brickworks, though it is had been the name of the Local Government Council for some time previous. Holroyd and the Silent Boundary project,

Holsworthy - named after a quiet village in Devon, England by Gov. Lachlan Macquarie. It was at the ancient Church of St Peter and St Paul in Holsworthy that Gov. Macquarie married his second wife, Elizabeth Campbell, in 1807.
Brief history: Macquarie gave the area its name on a journey to the Campbelltown area in 1810 at a time when a small community had emerged at what was then the navigable head of the Georges River. The settlement included farms, orchards, a mill and boat building facilities. Out of this settlement grew the town of Eckersley which emerged out of the subdivision and sale the larger grants in the area into small farms. Many vineyards and orchards were established alongside the road from Liverpool to the Illawarra Region which passed through the area. The soil proved to be not as suitable to wine growing and orcharding as first thought and the settlement failed to grow. In 1810, Eckersley's fate was set when Lord Kitchener, on a visit to Australia advising on military matters, went to Liverpool and declared Holsworthy as the site for a permanent Army encampment. Once the Army took possession in 1913, the rural settlement of Eckersley was abandoned and drifted into history. The original name of Holsworthy was retained for the military establishment.

Holtmere - a Kurnell locality covering an area of land originally held by Thomas Holt which appeared on the first map of the Sutherland Shire.

Homebush / Homebush Bay / Homebush West - named after D'Arcy Wentworth's estate 'Home Bush'. When Hunter and Bradley first explored the Parramatta River early in February 1788, Homebush Bay was charted and recorded but not named. Ten days later Governor Phillip accompanied the next expedition. The party landed on the western shore of the bay and walked south-west to about where Granville is now located. The first land grant at Homebush Bay was issued in 1797 to a shepherd, Samuel Haslam after whom Haslams Creek was named. Many of the Olympic venues are between these two creeks. It also covers the areas once occupied by landholders Capt. Henry Waterhouse, John and Gregory Blaxland and D'Arcy Wentworth and his eldest son, William Charles Wentworth.

Hornsby / Hornsby Heights - formerly known as Jack's Island, the origin of which is unknown. The present name derives from 'Hornsby Place', a grant to Samuel Horne in 1831, which was located in present day Normanhurst. Transported to NSW at the age of 19, he was given a full pardon in 1831 for his part in the capture of a bushranger named McNamara who held up Dr. Sherwin on the Windsor Road and stole his gold watch. Horne was rewarded with a grant of 320 acres. The railway station was opened in 1886 and named Hornsby Junction but the 'junction' part of the name was soon discarded and the village around the station became known as Hornsby. Street names

Hookhams Corner - located within the Hornsby Shire, the name of this locality recalls Alfred Hookham, a local builder in the 1840s.

Horsley Park - the area now known as Horsley Park was granted to Major George Johnston of the NSW Corps for his part in quelling the Irish uprising at Vinegar Hill in 1804. It was known as the King's Gift. Johnson left the land idle until his daughter, Blanche, married Edward Weston, a former employee of the East India Company. They moved onto the property and built a homestead (1831-34) which they named Horsley and it is from this name that the locality received its name. It has been suggested that the name Horsley was given by Johnson to honour an associate of Judge Jeffrey Hart Bent, but this seems unlikely given that Weston was the first person to use the name and he was born in the village of Horsley in Gloucestershire, England (above right).

Hoxton Park - the suburb now known as Hoxton Park covers a smaller area than it did in the past. The first landholders in the present Hoxton Park were Thomas Amos and John Jamison. The area now known as West Hoxton was also part of Hoxton Park for a long time. Hoxton Park was once known as Sarahville, a name given to the property of an early settler, George Williams who moved here in 1819. He named it after his wife Sarah. It was also deemed to be part of Cabramatta. By the 1860s some of these larger grants were being replaced by smaller holdings, mostly used for farming and timber-getting. In 1887 a Land Syndicate, Phillips & Co., subdivided much of the land, offering 3 acre lots for £60 each. The sales booklet for the estate describes the estate thus: "This magnificent stretch of country which we hope to make the comfortable home of about five hundred families, is an estate of over four thousand acres in area, known as Hoxton Park. Its soil is mostly a rich, friable loam, specially suited for fruit growing; though there are parts where market gardening might be profitably carried on, while other parts are more specially adapted to poultry farming."
It has been suggested that the district was named Hoxton Park by the land company but it would appear that Mr Amos' land may have had that name much earlier as an inscription on the stained glass window, in St Luke's church, for a Mr Heanage Finch reads: 'In memory of Heanage Finch Esq. of Hoxton Park in this Parish ...' He died in 1850 so apparently the name was in use at that time.

Hunters Hill - there is some disagreement as to the origin of the name of what is Sydney's smallest and one of its oldest municipalities. Many believe it to have originated from the property of Thomas Muir (1765-99), one of the five Scottish Martyrs who were transported to NSW in 1792 as traitors of the British Crown for advocating democracy and parliamentary reform. Not convicts in the true sense, they were given relative freedom in Sydney. Muir bought land and built a house two miles distant, & across the water , which it has been assumed is somewhere along the lower north shore. He is said to have called his property Huntershill, after his father s house in Glasgow, but this claim remains unsubstantiated. Despite his privileged life style, he absconded as soon as an opportunity arose. Sixteen months after his arrival, he escaped on 18 February 1796 by the American ship, The Otter.
More likely is the locality being named after Captain John Hunter of First Fleet vessel, HMS Sirius. Hunter led the first colonial survey of the Parramatta River in February 1788. He would have passed the Hunters Hill peninsula and may have named it at this time.
As early as 3rd October 1794, three government grants were issued in the district of Hunter s Hill , whereas Muir arrived on the transport Surprize on 25 October 1794, coming ashore with the other Scottish Martyrs in November. So, when Muir arrived, the name Hunter s Hill was already in use, and designated the high ground on the north shore, around Gore Hill.
Brief history: retailer Mary Reiby was one of the first white settlers in the Hunters Hill area and was among the first to buy up land between 1835 and 1843 when the whole of the peninsula was sold. At this time, Hunters Hill was a haven for bushrangers and it wasn't until Frenchman Didier Numa Joubert (1816-81) bought land from Mrs. Reiby in 1847 and began developing a village for French settlers that they vacated the area and the suburb we know today started to take shape. Hunters Hill became a showplace of magnificent sandstone houses set in bushland and offering panoramic river views.

Huntleys Point - named after early settler Alfred Huntley.
Brief history: Huntley, an engineer with the Australian Gas Light Company, bought land and erected a house on the point in 1851. His son later became an engineer and built many of the fine houses at nearby Hunters Hill. In 1847 Marist missionaries established a centre here alongside Tarban Creek. It was eventually absorbed into Gladesville Hospital. Many of the houses at Huntleys Point had to be demolished in the early 1960s to make room for the interchange at the north end of the Gladesville Bridge.

Huntingwood - a composite name chosen because the first English sport of hunting is said to have taken place here, and because the 'Woods Estate', owned by the Woods family for nearly a century, is located within the suburb.

Hurlstone Park - Originally part of the Canterbury Estate, it has earlier been known as Wattle Hill, then Fern Hill, which was the name given to the railway station. Both names were chosen to describe the locality's natural hilly, bushland character.
In 1910, a new post office was planned in Fern Hill, but the Postal Department insisted that the name of the locality would need to be changed, because there were already two post offices with that name, one in Victoria and one in Queensland. A referendum was held in conjunction with a municipal election, and the electors, given a choice of Fernboro, Garnett Hill or Hurlstone, chose Hurlstone, the name of the nearby Hurlstone College. The Railways Department agreed to the change in the area name, as well as the station, on condition that "Park" would be added to avoid confusion with Hillston in western New South Wales. Hurlstone College, founded by John Kinloch in 1878 on the site of present day Trinity College, was named after his mother, who had been Miss Helen Hurlstone before her marriage.
Brief history: officially white settlement began with two land grants. One grant went to John Homerson on 12 November 1799. The second was granted to Thomas Moore on 1 October 1803. On 1st February 1895, the official opening ceremony for the completion of the section of railway from Sydenham to Belmore, including a platform here named Fern Hill, which prompted a boom in the settlement of the area.

Hurstville / Hurstville Grove / South Hurstville - combination of two English nomenclature terms; 'hurst', meaning 'a wooden eminence', and 'ville', a town. The name was suggested by a school inspector when consideration was being given to establishing a public school in 1876. There is a town in Lancashire, England, of the same name, and it has been suggested that the Sydney suburb was named after it, however this has not been substantiated.
Brief history - the whole of the St George area was heavy wooded when the First Fleeters followed the Aboriginal tracks through the area and discovered the Georges River. Logging activity commenced in the early 1800s and continued for many decades until most of the land was cleared.
Hurstville began life as a logger's camp on Forest Road, its water supply being nearby marshy ground which was later reclaimed to form Woodville Park. Known as Lord's Forest, and later Gannon's Forest, by the time the railway arrived in the area in the 1880s, it was a sizeable village. Its first hotel, The Blue Post, was built in 1850 on a site near the present intersection of Forest Road and Park Road. The first church, St. George's, the parish of which has given the district its name, was built nearby 6 years later. Hurstville became the main station on the line in the St George district. In 1881, the Gannon's Forest Post Office had its name changed to Hurstville for the sake of uniformity, and it came into common use after that time. The St George County Council, formed in 1920, was the first County Council in Australia.

Illawong - from an Aboriginal word meaning 'between two waters' (Georges and Woronora Rivers). It was originally known as East Menai, but changed to Illawong when the public school was erected in 1960. The first development in Illawong was in the 1880s, when its remoteness made it popular for wealthy Sydney people to build holiday houses there. It was then reached by boat from Como. There was only scattered residential development until 1980 when the first residential subdivision took place.

Ingleburn - the origin of the name is not known. It is thought that the first white settler in the area, Richard Atkins, may have named his grant Ingleburn in 1793 after his hometown of Ingleburn in Devon, England. Atkins became NSW's second Advocate General after David Collins, returning to England with Bligh in 1809. Alternatively, the name may be derived from the Gaelic 'inge' (bend) and 'burn' (river). There are two very distinct bends in the Georges River where it forms Ingleburn's eastern boundary. Gov. Lachlan Macquarie was born and bred in the Gaelic-speaking Scottish Highlands and could have named the area during his first visit to it in 1810.
Brief history: originally known as Soldier Flat, because this was where four soldiers of the NSW Corps took up farm grants in 1809. These men were William Hall, William Neale, Joshua Alliot and Timothy Loughlin. In 1826, Neale's 80-acre grant was bought by an ex-convict called David Noonan as part of a number of purchases which created a farm of some 193 acres where the current town centre is located. In 1841, Mary Ruse, the daughter of famous pioneer James Ruse, purchased the farm for herself. With the coming of the railway, a platform was built on the old Neale property, at the current site. Originally called Macquarie Fields, its name was changed to Ingleburn when the new village of Macquarie Fields was separated as part of a new subdivision. Many of Ingleburn's earlier streets have English connections, however many of the newer streets are named after birds and those towards the Georges River are named after makes of cars. In 1939, the Australian Government purchased some 648 acres for about £20,000 from a Farmer MacDonald, for the Bardia Barracks. The land was part of the Denham Court Estate. In 1952, a further 320 acres were bought from Farmer MacDonald, again for about £20,000. Some of this land is now occupied by the Australian Headquarters of the Jehovah's Witnesses. The Camp is no longer used by the Military and while many buildings have been removed those that remain are in a derelict state and continue to be vandalised. A memorial pays tribute to the people who trained here and those who lost their lives in active service.

Ingleside - named after Baron Von Beiren's Ingleside House. Baron Von Beiren was a Dutch/American industrial chemist who built a house high on the forested hillsides of Mona Vale in the 1880s which he called Ingleside. Specialising in gunpowder and explosives, he established the Australian Gunpowder and Explosives Manufacturing Company on what was to become Powder Works Road. Losing credibility as an experimental chemist, Baron Von Beiren's business began to suffer. In 1924 he feigned bankruptcy but his plot was uncovered. He was gaoled for just under three years, which led to him having to close his gunpowder business.

Jamisontown - named in honour of Thomas Jamison, a First Fleeter who arrived as surgeon's assistant on HMS Sirius in 1788. In 1809, after being promoted to Surgeon-General of NSW, he was granted 1,000 acres here on the east bank of the Nepean River. His son, Sir John Jamison, built the imposing gentleman's residence Regentville here in 1825. He was also instrumental in the rehabilitation of convicts at the nearby Emu Plains Government Farm and was elected the first president of the Agricultural Society of NSW in 1822.

Jannali / Jannali West - from an Aboriginal word meaning 'beautiful moon'. The was name given when the Railway Station was opened in 1931. Jannali remained virtually undeveloped until the railway station, financed jointly by Council and the Department of Railways, was opened. Although the railway was already electrified, with regular services to Sydney, it grew slowly as a commuter suburb. In the 1950s, extensive public and private housing estates were built, stimulating construction of shopping and other facilities.

Kangaroo Point: Kangaroo Point is a narrow peninsula which juts out into the Georges River some 2km upstream from where the river enters Botany Bay. Kangaroos were often hunted here by being chased onto the point and cornered, hence its name. This practice began with the indigenous occupiers and was continued by the colonial settlers. Though neighbouring Sylvania Heights was first opened for development around the turn of the 20th century, development of this exclusive suburb did not take place until after World War II.

Kareela - an Aboriginal word derived from 'kari-kari' meaning 'fast'. Alternate suggested meanings are 'place of trees and water' or 'south wind'. Residential subdivision began in 1962. By the mid 1970s development was substantially complete. It was originally named Salisbury.

Kearns - recalls early settler William Kearns who owned property on the fringe of Scenic Hills.
Brief history: Kearns' property had originally belonged to his two brothers, Matthew and John, who had each been granted 100 acres off Raby Road. At the time, most of the property was still heavily wooded, which is why he named it Epping Forest. In 1824, Kearns was sued for damages after he seduced a 14 year old girl. The girl was the daughter of Joseph Ward, caretaker of the nearby St Andrews estate. Ward had left for England, leaving behind his wife and children, and on his return, found his daughter, Mary Ann, was pregnant to Kearns. Two months before the baby was due to be born, Kearns had married another woman. Kearns was found guilty, but ordered to pay damages of only £17 - well below the £1000 claimed by Ward. As if that wasn't bad enough, it came out in court that Ward had returned to Sydney with an English wife. Not only had he bluntly disowned his Australian wife, he had tried to sell his English-born daughter to an American ship's captain. As well as a dairy, the estate grew grain crops and included an orchard. In 1896, Epping Forest was inherited by Kearns' son's nephew, John Clark.
Clark turned the property into a prosperous cattle breeding farm which remained in the hands of his family until 1978 when it was purchased for residential development. Numerous suggestions for the name of the new suburb were put forward, including Bunbury after the Bunbury-Curran Creek; Epping Forest (it was rejected as there was already a Sydney suburb named Epping); Kearns Forest. The latter was adopted in 1976 but modified to simply Kearns. A plan to name the streets of the first subdivision in 1980 after capital cities of the world was rejected in favour of saints. For a 1983 subdivision, the name River Hill was suggested with matching street names recalling international rivers. River Hill was rejected but the idea of river names for streets was adopted.

Kellyville - this area was originally known as There and Nowhere, followed by Irish Town, as a large number of Irish people lived in the district. Convict Hugh Kelly arrived in May 1803, married his older widowed mistress Mary Evans and established a licensed inn The Half Way House that became The Bird in the Hand, on the corner of Wrights and Windsor Roads. After Kelly's death in 1884, John Fitzgerald Burns, James Green and George Withers purchased portions of several early land grants which were subdivided into farmlets as part of the Kellyville Estate, thereby giving the suburb its name.

Kemps Creek - recalls Anthony Fenn Kemp (1773-1868), who had two holdings of land in the area, one called Mt. Vernon which was 500 acres and an adjoining parcel of 300 acres. Present day Kemps Creek township is situated on the former Kemp estate. Kemp came to Sydney as an ensign with a detachment of the NSW Corps in 1795. He became involved in the judicial and political wranglings of the early Colony and then in 1816, departed to Tasmania. He played a notable pioneering role in Tasmania both as a merchant and a grazier.

Kensington - named after the Royal Borough of Kensington, London, England.
Brief history - the suburb now known as Kensington was once called Epsom and also Stannumville which is Latin for tin-town. The area largely consisted of swampland and included the Lachlan Stream. Settlement was first enticed in this unappealing area by the flour, paper and cloth mills located here. From it's very beginning the Kensington area was infested with industries reliant on the Lachlan Stream, from wool washing to tanneries and candle manufacturers. A small community sprang up in the area after the opening of the Royal Randwick Racecourse in 1833. It held its first Derby in 1865. A smaller racecourse, Kensington Racecourse, was established for ponies and galloways in 1864. The University of Sydney now occupies the site. In 1889 a competition was held to design a 'model suburb' in Kensington resulting in the areas around Todman Avenue quickly growing into a gentrified neighbourhood, though South and Central Kensington did not boom until the 1920's. Today Kensington is based on the winning entries from the competition. It was inspired by the model suburb of Bedford Park near Kensington Palace, England, which was one of the firm residential areas in Britain to be planned rather just allowed to grow. Because its inspiration came from London's Kensington, the name was used for the new subdivision in Sydney.

Kenthurst - Kenthurst was first known as Little Dural. Charles Gibb aroused interest to change the name from Little Dural to Kent Forest around 1886 because many local residents were from Kent, England, but the colonial government settled on Kenthurst. The name is derived from the English County of Kent and 'hurst', meaning a woody hillock. Kenthurst was originally covered by dense forest but by 1858, much of the forest had been removed by timber cutters.

Kentlyn - the name was chosen in 1933 to replace the old name of Kent Farms.
Brief history: from the earliest days of the colony the Kentlyn bush was mostly uninhabited except for a handful of land grants given out. The Kentlyn area was actually called 'Campbelltown Common' and provided temporary grazing and firewood. In 1894 Kentlyn was opened up for selection by small farmers where the Longhursts from Kent, England, were amongst the first. Shortly afterwards, three old land grants in the area were privately subdivided by a Sydney developer. This estate was then promoted as the 'Kent Farms' and by 1920 the entire was unofficially known as the Kent Farms. This name also encompassed modern Ruse and Airds.
In 1933 a vote was taken to give the area a formal name. From a list of suggestions Kent Lyn was chosen. By the end of the decade 'Kent Lyn' was being described as Kentlyn in the local papers. With the onslaught of the Great Depression in the 1930s many families came from everywhere and built makeshift homes in the bush and did their best to survive. Campbelltown Council gave the men work 2 days a week working on building roads in the area. Some of the street names recall the depression era including Coral Avenue, Smith Road and Harrison Road, all named after depression-ravaged families living here at the time.

Killara / East Killara - from an Aboriginal word meaning 'permanent' or 'always there'. It may well originated from the first contact between the British colonists and the Aborigines of the area. When they explored new areas, the colonists had a habit of asking the Aborigines the name of the locality. Aborigines appear to have rarely named places, but rather identified them descriptively eg. Parramatta: place where eels are caught". Thus, in the case of Killara, the Aborigines may well have been identifying the locality as being their tribal land. The name was first used for the railway station when the North Shore line was opened in 1899.
Brief history: A hostel, erected in 1835 and later replaced by the Green Gate Hotel, was a landmark for stage coach travellers. During much of the 19th century, Killara remained virgin bush but was cleared of much of its timber. One of the most well known timber getters was Joseph Fiddens, an emancipated convict who logged Killara's blue gum forest. Orchards were scattered through the bush until the arrival of the railway. It was the residents of Killara who first lobbied the government in 1875 to construct a railway through the Upper North Shore region.

Killarney Heights - named after Killarney in Ireland . The name was first used in the area for Killarney Picnic Ground, once located at Killarney Point, though who named it and why is not known. It was a popular picnic and holiday destination for 19th century Sydneysiders who were brought here by ferry from Sydney. It was almost called Heidelberg, and would have been had the first auction of land here in 1886 been successful. Few blocks were sold as the location was very isolated with no road access and further land sales were abandoned until the 1960s. At that time, Killarney was used as the name for the new subdivision. Other Irish names occur in many of the street names.

Kings Cross - originally known as Woolloomooloo Hill, in the 1830s it was extensively developed as Sydney's most prestigious residential area in which were built the mansions of many leading businessmen of the day. As much redevelopment was taking place here at the time of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee in the 1890s, it became known as Queens Cross. The name changed from Queens Cross to Kings Cross in 1905 not only in honour of King Edward VII but so as to avoid confusion with Queen's Square. The 'cross' of the name is a reference to the five-way junction of Darlinghurst Road, Bayswater Road, William Street and Victoria Street south and north. The junction no longer exists in its original form due to the construction of the Kings Cross road tunnel which altered the road alignments.

Kingsford - named in honour of Sir Charles Kingsford Smith (1897-1935), a pioneer Australian aviator who was first to fly the Pacific and made a record breaking solo flight between England and Australia in 1933. The area was originally known as South Kensington. The search for a new name began in 1935 due partly to postal confusion between South Kensington and Kensington. The chamber of commerce launched an essay competition and four finalists were chosen, Kingsford, Wembley, Chelsea and St Kilda. Kingsford was chosen in recognition of Charles Kingsford Smith the famous aviator.
Brief history: remained largely undeveloped with poultry and pig farms and stables servicing nearby Randwick Racecourse. Between the world wars, it was occupied by squatters who lived in rough camps. After World War II, a number of Greek migrants settled here, particularly from the small island of Castellorizo, near the Turkish coast. It was their arrival which led to the development of Kingsford as a residential area.

Kingsgrove - The name Kingsgrove comes from the name given to land granted to Mrs. Hannah Laycock (1758-1831) in 1804 - King's Grove Farm. As the grant was given by Governor King, it was probably named in his honour. The grant of 500 acres was dated 11 August 1804. The area was bounded by Kingsgrove Road, William Street, Bexley Road and Stoney Creek Road. In time, the two words became the one word we know today.
Hannah Laycock was the wife of Thomas Laycock, Quartermaster of the NSW Corps. It is not known whether the grant was a way of rewarding Thomas (who already had many grants) for his part in putting down the Castle Hill Rebellion or a sympathy grant to support Hannah because of the improper behaviour of her husband. Hannah's farmhouse was located near the corner of Homer Street and Rosemeath Avenue.
Brief history: first used as the name of the first land grant in the Kingsgrove area as we know it today developed after the opening of the Tempe to East Hills railway in 1931. A rail line as far as Salt Pan Creek was recommended in 1923, then it was proposed as far as East Hills. The principal reason for the line was to relieve congestion on the Bankstown and Illawarra lines.

Kings Langley - named after the place of that name near London, England.
The earliest land grantees were Matthew Pearce and his wife, who arrived as free settlers aboard the Surprise in 1794. They named their home King's Langley after a village 30 km south of London of that name. Matthew is believed to have been born in the manor house there. Pearce's grant was much larger than the suburb of today an included parts of Seven Hills, Bella Vista and Winston Hills. Their grant became known as Seven Hills as they claimed they could see seven hills from the highest point of their property. The family cemetery still stands on the site of their homestead.

Kingswood / Kingswood Park - named after Phillip Parker King, the son of Governor Philip Gidley King. He named his property Cambridge Park after a family friend, the Duke of Cambridge. In the early 1880s, King's property was later subdivided and sold for development as orchards and vineyards after the arrival of the railway in 1862. Subdivision continued until the beginning of World War I but residential development was still some 50 years away. Kingswood Park was named as an extension to the suburb of Kingswood, being the northern section of the original grant to King.

Kirkham - recalls the name of the property of pioneer settler, Naval Officer, Surveyor-General and Explorer John Oxley who called his grant of 1815 "Kirkham" after his birthplace in Yorkshire, being a town near Preston. The stables are all that remain of Oxley's original country estate. The date 1816 is inscribed on the wall of the stables and this is commonly thought to be the year of completion. The stables are made from rendered brick and have two storeys. It has been consistently used as stables through the years. The grounds contain a memorial to John Oxley in the form of an anchor and nearby is the grave of Chester, the prize-winning horse owned by James White of Camelot. When John Oxley died in 1828 his family retained the estate and both of his sons went on to represent Camden in the NSW Parliament. Kirkham Lane was the name of the railway platform here on the Campbelltown to Camden line.

Kirrawee - from an Aboriginal word meaning 'lengthy'. The name was adopted in 1939 with the opening of the railway line. A postal receiving office in the locality was known as Bladeville. It was operated from the home of Mrs. Louisa Blade, was opened in 1909 and closed in 1915 when a letter delivery commenced from the Sutherland Post Office.

Kirribilli - believed to be an Anglicised version of an aboriginal word of unknown meaning, though at times historians have wondered if it had its origins in the name of the early settler James Milson's family cottage, which was Carabella. Kirribilli Point was for a while known as Russian Cape as it was here in the 1820s that a Russian team of scientists on a scientific voyage set up an observatory.

Kogarah / Kogarah Bay - derived from the Aboriginal word "coggera" or "cogerah" meaning "rushes". The name was originally applied to what is now known as Rushcutters Bay.
Brief history - during the 1850s a small farming community sprung up in the Kogarah area after timber getters had gone through. The Kogarah Public School was completed in 1876. Residential development was slow until the arrival of the railway in 1885, when major subdivision took place and land sales boomed. Electricity arrived in 1923.

Ku-Ring-Gai - the name of the district encompassing Sydney's upper north shore. It is of Aboriginal origin, and was used by the local clan to describe themselves and their territory and is not the name of the area as is often thought. 'Koori' is aboriginal for people or themselves, 'gai' in the local Aboriginal dialect means place or territory. Thus when the whites first asked the question of the local Aborigines 'what is this place?', when they replied 'koori-gai' they were not saying 'it is called Koori-gai', rather, they were saying 'our land'.

Kurrajong / Kurrajong Heights / Kurrajong Hills - originally spelt Curry Jung Hill, the name recalls the Aboriginal name of the beautiful tree, Brachychiton populnous, which once grew in abundance in the area. The area was originally named Knights Hill by explorer Watkin Tench "in honour of the trusty sergeant who had been the faithful and indefatigable companion of all our travels." Brief history: the area was first settled around 1790, after Governor Phillip had travelled down the Hawkesbury River in search of suitable farming land for the struggling colony. As early as 1795 an attempt to find a route through the mountains had been made. By 1841 the convict built road through Kurrajong, named Bell's Line of Road, was opened. In the 1820s and 30s, the notorious bushranger Jack Donahoe and his gang terrorised the settlers and travellers of Kurrajong and Richmond.

Kurnell - a number of possibilities as to the origin of the name exist;
1. It is derived from the Aboriginal name for Kurnell peninsula: Kurdul
2. It is the English pronunciation of an Aboriginal word 'Collonel'
3. it came from the name of an early settler, John Connell, who acquired land here in 1821 for timber getting.
Brief history: Kurnell is the location on Botany Bay where James Cook came ashore and camped in April 1770 during his voyage of discovery into the Pacific. It was at the recommendation of Joseph Banks, head botanist of the expedition, that led to Botany Bay being chosen as the site for a new convict settlement in New South Wales in 1788.

Kyeemagh - said to originate from an Aboriginal word meaning "beautiful dawn". Manly Cove on North Harbour was known to the Aborigines as Kay-Yee-My, which may also account for the name though no explanation exists as to why the name was transferred to this location. It has also been suggested that Kyeemagh is a corruption of the name of the local Aboriginal tribe, the Kameygal.
It was the lush reeds on the shores of Botany Bay here that Captain Cook described as 'Water Meadows', believing them to be lush fields. It was on the strength of this false premise that Botany Bay was chosen as the site for Britain's New South Wales convict settlement in the 1780s. Those reeds, named kogara by the local Aborigines, gave rise to the area on the shores of Botany Bay being first named Kogarah.

Kyle Bay: original land grants in the area were to Kyle and Williams. Robert Kyle, who lived in the bay, was a local shipbuilder in the 1870s. The area was subdivided for residential development in the late 1950s.

Lakemba - this suburb was named after the property of an early settler, Benjamin Taylor, whose home stood in what is now Haldon Street. The name recalls a mission station at Lakemba in Fiji, which he once visited.
Brief history - like its neighbouring suburbs, Lakemba was subdivided and developed in the post-gold rush 1860s after the railway arrived in the area. Much development took place in the 1930's and today, land which in the 1920's could have been bought for 50 pounds per block. Quite a number of streets or roads in the district are named after Alderman who served on the Council for varying terms. Amongst these are Sproule Street, Quigg Street, Dennis Street and Taylor Street.

Lalor Park - the name either recalls a local family or Peter Lalor, the rebel miner leader of the Eureka Stockade near Ballarat in November 1854. The former seems the most likely as Peter Lalor had no known connection with the area. A creek which rises in Lalor Park and flows through Seven Hills into Toongabbie Creek is also named Lalor and it is from this that the suburb name was selected. Brief history: part of the original Seven Hills Farm, the suburb was developed in 1959 by the Housing Commission in what was once known as Seven Hills West. The suburb of Lalor Park is actually north of the present day Seven Hills, but it was in the western section of the original Seven Hills Farm which covered a wider area than today's suburb.

Lane Cove / Lane Cove West - the cove and Lane Cove River were named by Gov. Phillip in 1788. They were named thus either in honour of a personal friend, John Lane, Lord Mayor of London or because the heavily wooded shores of the waterway, when first viewed from the Parramatta River, gave the impression of a lane shaped cove. At that stage the river had not been discovered. Brief history: the Lane Cove district was heavily wooded when the First Fleet arrived, and due to the rugged terrain, remained relatively untouched until the arrival of loggers in the 1820s. It was they who cut out the tracks for timber haulage which became the district's major thoroughfares. Orchards were planted in the pockets of cleared bush and these remained for a greater part of the 19th century.

Lansdowne - named by Governor Bourke after Henry Petti-Fitzmaurice, third Marquis of Lansdowne. The name was first given to the bridge over Prospect Creek designed and built by Scottish stonemason David Lennox in 1835. It replaced Bowler's Bridge, thus named because it led to Bowler's Inn. Governor Bourke chose the name of the bridge. It was many years later that the name was adopted for the surrounding area.

Lansvale - developed in the 1950s, this suburb appears to have received its name as a result of a common practice of the day; to take the first part of a place name on one side and the last part of a place name on the other and come up with a new name for the suburb in between. Hence, in creating the name Lansvale, the 'Lans' from Lansdowne was added to the 'vale' from Canley Vale. A subdivision here was sold as River Heights but there is no evidence to suggest it was ever considered as the name for this suburb.

La Perouse - Commemorates French navigator Jean-Francois de Galaup, Comte de La Perouse, whose two ships entered Botany Bay and anchored on the northern side of the Bay shortly after the arrival of the First Fleet in January 1788. A week after the expedition landed, Pere Receveur, a Franciscan monk who was travelling as a scientist aboard L'Astrolabe, died from spear wounds received in Samoa two months earlier when a landing party was attacked by natives. La Perouse's ships left the area on 11 March 1788, never to be seen or heard of again. Receveur's grave, and the name of nearby Frenchmans Bay, recall the visit of this ill-fated expedition. The aboriginal name for the locality was Bunnerong.
Brief history - apart from the presence of an aboriginal community and a number of whaleboat operators, the area remained relatively untouched until after World War II. In 1821, Gov. Macquarie built the stone watchtower for the use of soldiers posted in the area to sight enemy ships. It was Macquarie's last construction project before his departure in that year. In 1885 the Bare Island Fort was erected as part of Sydney's maritime defence system.

Lapstone - derived from Lapstone Hill, the name of the railway platform on the original line across the Blue Mountains. The platform was thus named as the hillside was covered with loose water-worn stones of varying size, resembling the lapstone of a shoemaker.

Lavender Bay - George Lavender, an early resident of the lower north shore who, like his father-in-law, Billy Blue, became a boatman, and operated a ferry service across the harbour in the 1830s and 40s. Lavender arrived in Sydney as bosun on the prison hulk Phoenix which was moored in the bay for some years. Known to the aborigines as Quibaree, it was first called Hulk Bay and then Phoenix Bay by the colonists as it was here that derelict prison ships housing convicts destined for the penal colonies of Port Macquarie and Norfolk Island were moored. For many decades, Lavender Bay was the site of shipbuilding activity.

Leichhardt - name recalls German explorer Ludwig Leichhardt (1813 - 1848) who disappeared without trace during an exploratory journey across Australia. Brief history - Hugh and John Piper had a number of large grants here between them. Hugh established the Piperston estate which was bought in 1846 by Walter Beames, a friend of explorer Ludwig Leichhardt. Beames assisted Leichhardt with provisions for his explorations. He changed the name of "Piperston" to Leichhardt after his friend.
Leichhardt was one of the first growth areas of Sydney resulting from the gold rush of the 1850s. As the miners drifted back to Sydney, they sought land upon which to build their homes in what were then the outskirts of Sydney. Due to the influx of people, tram services were commenced, which in turn encouraged further development. The southern part of Leichhardt around Parramatta Road was once part of Petersham. The Municipality of Leichhardt was established in 1871.

Leightonfield - the name of a railway station at Villawood on the Regents Park to Cabramatta branch line. The origin of the name is not known. A light industrial area, Leightonfield is the location of National Rail's Sydney marshalling yards.

Lemongrove - named after the home of early settlers John and Sarah McHenry's house, which they named Lemongrove because it was built next to their lemon orchard. Brief history: the McHenry's moved into the area in 1827 and were among its first white settlers. The house was demolished and the land subdivided and sold in January 1885 in consequence to a court ruling in a dispute over ownership of the property after the McHentry's death. The streets of Lemongrove are named after the principal people involved in the court case.

Leonay - named after the Emu Plains home and vineyard of Leo Buring (1876-1961), the well known Australian wine grower. The name was a combination of Buring's Christian name "Leo" and his wife's nickname, "Nay". Hermann Paul Leopold Buring (Leo Buring) was born in 1876 in South Australia to German parents. In 1902 he joined Minchinbury Cellars near Mt. Druitt. Sometime after this date Buring and his wife built a house on this land in 1916. In 1931 Buring went into business for himself, and with Reginald Mowat of Great Western he formed Leo Buring & Co. Buring's first wine was made from grapes grown at his Emu Plains property in the early 1930's. He later moved the major part of his wine operations to the Barossa Valley in South Australia in 1945. After Buring's death at Leonay in 1961, his wife sold the former vineyard to developers but continued to live in their house until her death. The house then passed to the Emu Plains Sporting & Recreation Club. Leonay is a neighbourhood within the suburb of Emu Plains. Leonay Golf Course is established on what was the original Leonay vineyard.

Leppington - name comes from the property granted to William Cordeaux in 1821, which he named Leppington Park. Cordeaux arrived in the colony in 1817 on the convict transport Friendship to be in charge of the provision section of the Commissariat in Sydney. William was married on 19 September 1818 to Ann Moore, the sister of Thomas Moore of Moorebank. In 1819 he was appointed to take charge of the commissariat and in 1820 he accompanied John Oxley and Commissioner Bigge on a tour from Bathurst to Lake Bathurst. In 1821 he was placed in charge of the commissariat at Liverpool.
Leppington Park was a huge two storey home with its own private ballroom. It was built by convict labour and convicts also worked in the fields. The home was destroyed by fire in the 1940s and the army used the site for target practice. The bricks at the base of the outdoor stage at Leppington School came from this building. In 1914 an area of Leppington was subdivided as the Raby Estate, named after the property Raby which covered 3269 acres and was granted to Alexander Riley in 1810.

Lethbridge Park - named after the Lethbridge family, the first of whom (Robert) arrived in Sydney on 24 January, 1827. They bought land here which adjoined the Cambridge Park property of Capt. Phillip Parker King . Harriett Lethbridge married her neighbour, Capt. King, and King's sister, Mary, married Harriett's brother, Robert Copeland Lethbridge, in 1826. Capt. King was granted 1,500 acres west of Rope's Creek in 1806, and settled there with Harriett. Robert and Mary remained at Lethbridge Park. The Lethbridge family vault is the largest in the St Mary Magdalene Church's graveyard. Lethbridge Park was the first of many Housing Commission estates of the Mt. Druitt housing Estate project of the 1960s. Some local streets are named after Pacific Islands including Bougainville, Luzon, Pitcairn, Samoa and Tahiti.

Leumeah - from an Aboriginal word meaning 'here I rest'. It was the name of the land grant of pioneer settler, John Warby. When the railway platform was being built in 1887, a local politician decided its name should be Holly Lea, which was the name of a property nearby that he had bought three years prior. Other farmers in the area were so infuriated, one defaced the platform sign the day it was erected. The farmers were united in the belief that the name should honour pioneer settler, John Warby, whose land grant of Leumeah stood to the south. By the 1880s, it was owned by the influential couple, Joseph and Eliza Rudd. Eager to please, he compromised and changed the name to Leumeah.
Brief history: John Warby was transported in 1792 and ten years later was appointed as a constable to protect the famous wild cattle of the Cow Pastures. In this role he had forged a close friendship with the local Aborigines, the Tharawal, so when he was granted 104 ha on Bow Bowing Creek in 1816, Warby named his estate Leumeah, which transplanted from Tharawal means 'here I rest'. Warby's house survived until 1963 when it was demolished, but his stable and barn still exist. The Barn Restaurant occupies the stable and the barn is part of the "Colonial Motor Inn". Other early land grantees included James Fletcher, William Kitson, William Ray and Jeremiah Smith.
The first subdivision, creating plots for residences and small farms took place in April 1926 but few lots were sold. The biggest developments came after March 1959, when many of the area's rural back blocks were subdivided and sold as residential blocks. The first State Housing Commission subdivision was released in September 1961. In April 1975, attempts were made to rename the section of Leumeah bordering on Minto as Campbellfield in honour of the historic property founded by Dr. William Redfern. Public opposition forced the idea to be dropped. Many of the names of Leumeah's early streets recall early residents and land developers. A 1966 subdivision's streets honour famous inventors; those around Angle Road recall Australian rivers; a 1971 Housing Commission subdivision recalls writers and poets; the 1971 Leumeah Heights subdivision recalls Australian deserts, lakes and river caves; the July 1980 subdivision's streets are named after Antarctic explorers.

Lewisham - taken from the name of the home of an early landowner, Judge Joshua Josephson. It recalls a borough near London, England where Josephson came from. Brief history - one of the earliest settlers in the area was John Gambling who took up a grant in 1810. His name was remembered in Gambling Creek, which these days is a covered drain which flows into Hawthorne Canal. Like neighbouring Enmore, it was partly cleared in the 1830s and was part of a much larger district known as Petersham. Lewisham village developed around the railway station in the 1870s.

Liberty Grove - located to the east of Homebush Bay, Liberty Grove adjoins Bicentennial Park, which has been developed as a significant wetland area. Free settlers began farming the area in 1793 and knew it as Liberty Plains, a name which has been adapted for the modern residential development.

Lidcombe - a name created in 1913 by joining sections of the names of two mayors of the Municipality of Rookwood: Mr Lidbury, the current mayor, and Mr Larcombe, a former mayor.
Brief history: the area was first known as Haslam's Creek after Samuel Haslam who took up a grant here in 1804, the northern boundary of which was the creek which bares his name. His neighbours included Joseph Potts, an accountant of the Bank of New South Wales, after whom Potts Point is named. He called his 1,000 acre grant Hyde Park. Potts extended it several times to include what today are Berala, Rookwood, Auburn and Potts Hill, which recalls its former owner.
Haslam's Creek, located near the site of Lidcombe station, was one of the first stations on the Sydney to Parramatta railway in 1855. Three years on it was the site of the first major railway accident in New South Wales which resulted in two deaths. When Rookwood Cemetery was opened in 1867, it was named Haslam's Creek Cemetery but the name was changed in 1876 after residents complained that the name associated their suburb with the cemetery. Ironically, when the cemetery's name was changed, so was the railway station - it became Rookwood! To add insult to injury, the municipality of Rookwood was created in 1891 which led to more lobbying to change the name back. This led to the selection of a new name for the suburb and railway station - Lidcombe - which was gazetted in 1913.

Lilli Pilli - formerly described as Lilly Pilly Point, because of the native Myrtle (Lilly Pilly or Lilli Pilli - Acmena smithii) Tree growing in rich black soil.
Early history: the first description of the area was recorded by Robert Cooper Walker, an employee of developer and businessman Thomas Holt who owned the Sutherland estate, of which Lilli Pilli was a part. The only other landowner in the area at the time was Francis Mitchell who, in 1840, gave his address as Great Turriell or Lilly Pilly Point. No more is known of Mitchell. Lilly Pilly remained virgin bush until after World War II when the current suburb was created.

Lilyfield - possibly from lilies growing in a field but the origin of the name remains obscure. The first recording of the name was in the 1893 Sands Directory, which identified the Lilyfield Post Office as being at 53 Lamb Street Leichhardt, though it was probably in common use well before then.

Lindfield / East Lindfield / West Lindfield - named after a property owned by a Mr List, who was born in Lindfield, a suburb of Hayward's Heath in Surrey, England. When the railway was built in 1890, the name of his property was used for the station nearby. Before that time, the Lindfield district was sparsely populated by orchardists. Lindfield saw its greatest period of growth after World War I.

Linley Point - One of the smallest suburbs of Sydney, the origin of its name is unknown but probably refers to an early settler or landowner. Community website

Little Bay - The bay's name is descriptive and serves to differentiate it from the only other bay on this stretch of coast, which is appropriately named Long Bay. Brief history: a settlement here came into being as a camp to isolate smallpox sufferers during Sydney's smallpox epidemic of 1881-82. It was again used during the Bubonic plague of 1900 and to isolate soldiers who returned from World War I with an influenza virus which affected up to 50 percent of Sydney's population. Prince Henry Hospital grew out of what began as a makeshift camp on the beach.

Liverpool - named in honour of Robert Jenkinson, the Earl of Liverpool who, at the time of naming, was Secretary of State for the Colonies and later Prime Minister of England.
Brief history: Liverpool is one of a number of towns founded by Gov. Macquarie as a centre for the developing areas to the west of Sydney. At the time of Macquarie's visit, there were already numerous farms established in the area then known as Cow Pastures which is between Liverpool and Camden. Liverpool town centre contains a number of historic buildings dating from Macquarie's time. It remained a centre for a thriving dairy farming industry until well after 1856 when the railway arrived, however from that year it grew significantly as a residential area.

Llandilo - named after the Welsh town of Llandeilo Fawr in Wales, a town associated with St. Teilo, an important 6th-century Welsh saint, monk, and bishop, whose work and cult were centred on Llandeilo Fawr. "Llan" means church or village. Although there is some evidence to suggest that the name Llandilo was in limited use as early as the 1860's, it would seem that the area was better known as Terry Brook after Samuel Terry (1776?-1838), the ex-convict who became a wealthy merchant and landowner. Terry had been granted 950 acres in the area on 13 January, 1818. By 1888, however, the name Llandilo was applied to subdivisions in the area.

Loftus / Loftus Heights - named after a former governor of New South Wales, Lord Augustus William Spencer Loftus. He was Governor at the time the railway station was opened and his name was used for it. Subdivision for building lots began until 1923, however, development was slow until the 1950s.

Londonderry - named after "Londonderry", a property of 30 acres granted to a Thomas Kendall. It is not certain if this was the same Thomas Kendall who worked as a convict labourer on the building of the same road over the Blue Mountains in 1814. It is certain, however, that the Kendall family were early settlers in the Castlereagh area, probably squatting in the area in the early 1800's.

Longueville - possibly named after a French nobleman, the Duc de Longueville, although there is no documentation to support or refute this.
Brief history: the first recorded landowner was Robert Kirk who owned a 120 acre estate here. Development of Longueville was extremely slow - by 1884 there were still only two houses on the point. Subdivision and the sale of land for residential development took off after World War I and during the 1920s after a ferry service to the city was launched, it became one of Sydney's fastest growing suburbs.

Lovett Bay: The area commonly referred to as the Western foreshores comprises three bays on the south western side of Pittwater, one of which is Lovett Bay. It was named after John Lovett who lived on this bay in 1836. It was named Night Bay in the survey of 1869. Dorothea Mackellar, the poet, lived here at her house, Tarrangaua, built in 1924. Today it is a small village of holiday homes.
The northernmost bay of the Western foreshores is Towlers Bay, it was named after Bill Toler who used to camp there. Originally named Morning Bay in a survey of 1869, it was officially changed in 1984. The northern headland at Elvina Bay, is called Rocky Point. In 1842 William Oliver had his first farm here, cutting timber and later he established fruit trees.

Lower Portland - named after William Henry Cavendish Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, and Prime Minister of Great Britain in 1783, and from 1807- 1809. He was Home Secretary from 1794 to 1801. The name was first used in 1805, and almost certainly seems associated with the story that a rock on the plateau above the headland resembled the Duke of Portland. Lower Portland was the area settled downstream from Portland Head.

Lowlands - a descriptive name, being part of the Hawkesbury River floodplains downstream from Richmond. It rarely floods these days due to the construction of the Warragamba dam upstream which regulates flood waters.

Lucas Heights - named after John Lucas Snr., a flour miller at Liverpool who was granted 150 acres at the 'head of unnamed stream sailing into Georges River', 1823. He built a water-driven mill for grinding corn from the Illawarra farms &emdash; small ships sailed up the coast into Botany Bay, Georges River and Woronora River.

Long Point - the only suburb of Campbelltown to be named after a geographical feature. The name first appeared on an old plan of the Campbellfield estate dated from 1844 which showed the north-west portion of the estate as 'the long point forest land'.
Brief history: the first settler was Thomas Wills, brother of Sarah Wills, who is better known as Sarah Redfern, the wife of Minto's Dr. William Redfern. Thomas held almost all of Long Point, the most far-flung section of Redfern's Campbellfield Estate. In the 1930's, it was used as the hideout of East Sydney underworld figures who would 'disappear' discreetly in small houses set up in the bush there when the law looked like catching up with them. The area was also home to many families during the 1930s depression who lived in bush shanties.

Luddenham - In November 1813, Governor Lachlan Macquarie granted John Blaxland (1769-1845), 6,710 acres of land between the Nepean River and South Creek, straddling what is now the township of Luddenham. John Blaxland was the elder brother of Gregory Blaxland of Blaxland, Lawson and Wentworth fame. The grant was named "Luddenham" after the Blaxland family estate in Kent, England.

Lugarno - named after Lugano in the Ticino region of Switzerland. Originally the spelling of the two places was the same. Swiss Lugano is beside Lake Lugano, and a short distance from the town the Italian border passes through the lake. Believed to have been named by James Murphy, the principal assistant to Thomas Holt who worked at various times as the secretary, manager, or director of the Holt-Sutherland Estate Company. He held a large amount of land at Como, where he ran the Murphy's Pleasure Grounds from the 1880's to World War I. He built a Swiss style chalet at Como, overlooking the George's and Woronora Rivers. It is not known if Murphy travelled overseas, or if he was inspired by accounts of the travels of Thomas Holt, but he is believed to be responsible for many Swiss and Italian names in the district, including those of Lugano and Como. The earliest recorded use of the name Lugano is in the Government Gazette of the 10th June, 1887, announcing the re-establishment of the ferry at 'a point on the George's River known as the Old George's River crossing, now known as Lugano'. The name Lugano appears to have originally been applied to that stretch of the river, and to the land on both sides of the river where the ferry crossed.
Brief history: during the early years of the colony, the Lugarno peninsula was largely unoccupied and covered in dense bush. The tip of its point was selected by Surveyor-General Sir Thomas Mitchell and his assistant William Govett as the point at which a new road to the Illawarra would cross the Georges River. Forest Road follows the path they surveyed through the high forests which once covered the St George District. Down on the water's edge near Edith Bay, a punt would ferry travellers to a continuation of the road up and over the hillside on the Illawong bank of the river. Mitchell's Old Illawarra Road was built by convicts in 1941 along the surveyed route and remained the main road to the Illawarra until a punt service across the Georges River at Blakehurst in the 1870s opened up a shorter, less arduous route. History of Lugarno

Lurnea - chosen to replace the name Hillview, it is said to be an Aboriginal name, either meaning 'a resting place' or describing the location as such.
This locality, to the south-west of Liverpool, was one of the earliest farming districts in Sydney. After World War I it was subdivided into small farmlets for returned soldiers to settle on and develop poultry farms and orchards. The development was named Hillview though there were no hills to view as the surrounding area is flat plain. The process of developing accommodation for retired servicemen continued until after World War II when the Green Valley Housing Scheme was launched to settle that war's returned soldiers and refugees from Europe in new suburban areas to the north of Lurnea.

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