The Names of Sydney: Suburbs D to G

Daceyville - recalls John Rowland Dacey, a local member of state parliament from 1895 until his death in 1912.
Brief history - Sir John Sulman, the pioneer of town planning in Australia, drafted the plans of what was to be a model suburb and Australia's first garden suburb in the undeveloped section of Mascot. Subdivided for residential development - 1890s.

Dangar Island: Captain Phillip's exploration party landed on Dangar Island on the 7th of March 1788. They caught a quantity of fish and so named it Mullet Island. It was purchased in 1864 by Henry Carey Dangar. The current name appears on an 1872 Admiralty chart but the island was not officially renamed until 1922. In the early days some boat building took place and salt was produced for shipment to Sydney. More information

Darling Harbour: recalls Gov. Ralph Darling. Its Aboriginal name is commonly believed to have been Tumbalong, which identified it as a place where seafood was regularly caught. The name is remembered today in Tumbalong Park, which is part of the Darling Harbour precinct. Like so many other Aboriginal names, however, it appears to have not been the Aboriginal name for the location, but rather an expletive or obscenity, which is how Aborigines often answered questions of the early white settlers about the names of locations. The newcomers often believed they were being given a locality name whereas they were really being told to go away and leave them alone. To the early white settlers, Darling Harbour was known as Long Cove, with the head of the cove given the name Cockle Bay. In 1825 Gov. Darling re-named the bay after himself.

Darlinghurst - named by Governor Ralph Darling (right) in honour of his popular wife. 'Hurst' is a suffix in Old English nomenclature meaning 'wooded hill'.
Brief history: once lined with windmills, the Aboriginal settlement established by Gov. Macquarie on the ridge was named Henrietta Town after Macquarie's wife, whose second name was Henrietta. By the time of the arrival of Gov. Darling in December 1825, the Aborigines had been moved on to Blacktown or La Perouse, their camp being replaced by stylish gentlemen's houses. Darling, perhaps feeling that the Macquaries had more than their fair share of places named after them, decided a name change was necessary and followed Macquarie's example, re-naming the area after his wife.

Darling Point - originally named Mrs. Darling's Point by Governor Ralph Darling in honour of his wife. Aboriginal name: Yarranabbee.
At the time of its naming, the peninsula was heavily wooded, but by 1838, most of the trees had been felled and the area subdivided into 9 to 15 acre farms. Darling Point soon became home to the wealthy and noteworthy, among whom were tea baron, Philip Bushell, businessman Thomas Sutcliffe Mort, Surveyor General Sir Thomas Mitchell, the Tooth family of brewers, retailer Samuel Horden and later, poet Dorothea Mackellar.

Darlington - named after botanist William Shepherd's Darling Nursery, which he named in honour of Governor Darling. The name of the nursery was later adopted as the name of the area, with the suffix "town" added, though this was later corrupted to Darlington. Brief history: Shepherd, the first white settler here, was originally offered Grose Farm, on which the Sydney University now stands, but he declined it, saying it was too far out of town. Instead he took up what is today known as Darlington. Shepherd's southern neighbour was James Chisholm. His grant was called Golden Grove. It was resumed in 1878 to build the Eveleigh Railway Workshops. A section of it was subdivided in about 1881. The small allotments in it were advertised as 'workmen's dwellings' and most home building occurred here during the late 1880s. The name Golden Grove is still used today.

Davidson - named after New South Wales Governor Sir Walter Davidson (right). The name was chosen in 1923 when the parkland here was being set aside for public use at a time when Davidson was the state's governor. The suburb of Davidson, which developed in the 1960s, took the name of its neighbouring bushland reserve.

Dawes Point - named after Lieutenant William Dawes. An amateur astronomer, Dawes arrived with the First Fleet in 1788 and established an observatory here on behalf of the astronomer royal, Dr. Neville Maskeleyne, to observe an eclipse. Dawes erected the first fort in the Sydney area next to his observatory to protect Sydney Cove.

Dean Park - named after the Dean family. William Dean was granted 200 acres beside Eastern Creek and the Dean family owned the Bush Inn on the Western Highway.

Dee Why - origin is unsure, though numerous suggestions abound. According to some, it is derived from the aboriginal word "diwai", a waterfowl said to have inhabited Dee Why Lagoon. Another suggestion is that it refers to the Spanish caravel, "Santa Ysabel", which went missing in fog off Calao, South America in 1595, and according to folklore, was wrecked here. The first recorded use of the name was in September 1815, when Surveyor James Meehan recorded in his field book, "Dy Beach - marked a honeysuckle near beach". Meehan recorded difficulty accessing the area because of the heavy brush and swamp, and it is most likely he was using an abbreviation of the Greek word "dysprositos", meaning "difficult to reach". If this were the case, the name, like that of Bare Island at the entrance to Botany Bay, was recorded more of a description than for use as a name.

Denham Court - the name of a 200 ha land grant to Richard Atkins, who was the colony's Judge Advocate. He named it after his ancestral home in England.
Brief history: in 1825, the property Denham Court was styled by its next owner, Capt. Richard Brooks, on the typical English country estate - with himself as the lord of the manor. Brooks wanted his to be the showcase property of the area, which makes it all the more ironic that a more recent owner, Miss Gowan Flora MacDonald, fought tooth and nail to prevent Denham Court from being used as the official suburb name in 1970. She made numerous special representations to Liverpool Council asking that the name only be applied to the historic Denham Court house and farm - which she owned, but to no avail. Brooks barely lived long enough to see his dreams come to fruition. After being gored by a bull, he died at the age of 68 in 1833. By the late 1830s, the property was becoming the nucleus of a small village, with a mill, church and hotel.

Denistone / Denistone East / Denistone West - possibly named after the village of Denistone, 25 km north-east of Stafford, England. The name is that of a property in the area of an early settler and doctor, Thomas Forster, who moved into the area in 1830. Forster married Eliza Blaxland, the daughter of explorer Gregory Blaxland. Their Denistone homestead was burnt to the ground in a bushfire in 1840. Part of the property was sold to Richard Rouse Terry, the brother of the first Mayor of Ryde, Edward Terry.

Dharruk - from an Aboriginal name, purported to be that of a local tribe who were the early inhabitants of the Blue Mountains. Much of the Aboriginal rock art in the mountains is the work of the Dharruk people.

Diamond Bay: its origin remains obscure, but the earliest record of that name appears in a "Report and Map of the Harbour Defences", dated January 3, 1863.

Dobroyd Head: the name Dobroyd Point was originally given this headland by Simeon Lord early in the 19th century. Dobroyd Castle was the home of his mother, Ann Fielden, prior to her marriage in 1764.

Dolans Bay - after Patrick Dolan who purchased approximately 286 acres on 17th January 1856. Once part of Caringbah, the area began to be developed from the 1880s, but until World War II remained largely small farms and orchards.

Dolls Point: The origin of the name is unknown.

Doonside - Doonside was originally called Crawford after local landowner Robert Crawford. It was changed to Doonside in 1886 in honour of Crawford's home town back in Scotland, the name being first used for the railway station which was on Crawford's grant.

Double Bay - named for the sandy shoreline interrupted by a miniature point. The name was used to identify the area since the colony's founding.
Brief history - a small village developed around the bay in the 1930s to plans approved by Governor Richard Bourke in October 1834. At that stage, Double Bay had only five streets - Cross, Bay, Ocean, Lillian and Swamp - and was promoted as a maritime village established to house working class families employed in in maritime activities such as shipbuilders and fisherman. For decades, it remained a neglected sleepy hollow. After the first world war, four room cottages sold for £650 and "Gentlemen's residences in their own grounds and with harbour views and water frontages" could be purchased for between £2,000 and £4,500. It was not until after World War II that Double Bay began to develop into the exclusive address that it has become today.

Dover Heights - believed to be named after Dover Street (now Dover Road), which was possibly named after the White Cliffs of Dover because both places have picturesque cliffs. The name was first used by developers of the area. Brief history: market gardens were established here during the early part of the 19th century. These were gradually replaced by stately homes which took advantage of the location's superlative views. Dover Heights was subdivided for residential development in the 1880s. The area now occupied by Rodney Reserve was used by the military for coastal observation during World War II.

Drummoyne - after the waterside property of William Wright, a merchant, whaler and sealer, who bought land on the peninsula in 1853. All that remains today is the river wall of Wrights Wharf. The house's gardens included eucalypts, conifers, beds planted with camellias, gardenias and rhododendrons, an orchard, Sydney's largest croquet lawn and a pleasure ground with walks edged in stonework. The estate was first subdivided in 1882 and repeatedly thereafter. The house and shrunken gardens survived until 1971, when the site and its buildings were levelled.
Wright named the property after his family home on the Clyde in Scotland. It is a Gaelic name meaning 'flat-topped ridge'. Aboriginal name: Warrembah, said to mean 'where sweet waters meet'.
Brief history: originally part of Surgeon John Harris' Five Dock Farm, Drummoyne grew as a residential area when the main road north was re-directed through it on its way to the original newly built Gladesville Bridge in the 1880s. The south east corner of Drummoyne was subdivided and sold under the name of Birkenhead Estate, thus named after an English town near Liverpool on the Mersey. The name is recalled today in Birkenhead Point. A nearby subdivision to the south of Lyons and Victoria Roads was the Tranmere Estate. A street in the subdivision recalls the name.

Duffys Forest - named after Irish timber cutter Patrick Duffy. Duffy took up a land grant in the area in 1857 and cut a road through the bush to a wharf he built on Cowan Creek for the removal of cut timber. In the 1960s, Duffys Forest was briefly considered as the site for Sydney's second airport.

Dulwich Hill - named after the London suburb of Dulwich, England. The name is said to mean 'meadow where dill grows'. It had been known as Petersham Hill, Sarah Dell, Wardell's Bush, South Petersham and Fern Hill before its current name was adopted. Its railway station was originally known as Wardell Road, a name which honours early settler Dr. Thomas Wardell (1793-1834), but was renamed Dulwich Hill in July 1920 in line with the the local school and post office.

Dundas / Dundas Valley - named after Henry Dundas, principal Secretary of State for the Home Department in London. The name is derived from the 100 acre property of Rev. Samuel Marsden who named the property thus when he took possession of land in 1796 at Thompson's Corner. The locality had been known as Adderton Road, Pennant Hills, Kissing Point Road and Field of Mars until 1890 when its present name was adopted. Dundas was part of the original Field of Mars settlement of The Ponds, established in 1791 as a place where convicts were granted land after serving their sentence.

Dunheved - named originally after the keep of the old castle at Launceston, Cornwall (right). This name was first given to the property of the first grantee, Gov. Philip Gidley King, who took possession of 600 acres in 1806. When urban development commenced after the war, the spelling Dunheved came into common use, but these days the gazetted spelling of Dunheved is used.
Brief history: the area remained sparsely populated by sheep farms and orchards until World War II when a large munitions factory was built in the area at St Marys and a railway line constructed to service it and its workers. After the war, the southern section was developed into an industrial estate. Sections of the rest have subsequently been resumed for housing estates.

Dural / Middle Dural - Aboriginal name for Dural was 'Dooral-Dooral' meaning 'a burning log'. This name covered north, upper and middle Dural. The earliest reference can be found in Meehan's Field Book 128, 1817. The first land grant to George Hall in 1819 of 600 acres, was only a part of the then huge area of Dural. In 1802 Governor King reserved a large area of land north of Castle Hill, along the ridge of 34,000 acres, which included the present day Dural, Galston and Glenorie. In 1827 a correspondent wrote of "the silent and thickly wooded forests of Dooral". Street names

Eagle Vale - name taken from a pioneer homestead, which was later changed to Eschol Park, which is the name of a neighbouring suburb.
Early history: Thomas Clarkson, a publican and baker, was the first settler in the area. He arrived in Sydney as a convict in 1806. He was pardoned in 1811 and within two years had been granted 40 ha at the foot of what is now the Scenic Hills. He bought surrounding land and called his property Woodland Grove. It was one of the largest farms on Campbelltown's western hills. The property was then bought by a wealthy widow called Jemima Jenkins who was a cousin of Lord Horatio Nelson. Her husband had been a founder of the Bank of NSW. Mrs. Jenkins discarded the name Woodland Grove and gave her address as Eagle Farm, Eagle Vale. The farms employed many convicts and ran hundreds of sheep, cattle and horses. The property was sold in 1858 to William Fowler, a Campbelltown storekeeper and postmaster, and the property was renamed again - this time Eschol Park. The Eagle Vale name was largely unused and forgotten until 1976 when the council was looking for names for new suburbs soon to be built in the Campbelltown district. The old name was suggested and adopted. Most of the street names of Eagle Vale are named after minerals and gemstones with some being named after Australian artists.

Earlwood - commemorates Mrs. Jane Earl, who owned land here from 1883. The wood part of the name is thought to commemorate the two Wood brothers who had a poultry and pig farm on Wolli Creek. The earliest name for the locality was Parkes Camp, derived from the Parkes family's name and an inference to the profession of John and his sons - at this time 'camp' denoted the headquarters of a group of sawyers. John Parkes was a convict transported on the Bardwell in 1797 and during 1816 was granted 50 acres in the Botany Bay District. On receipt of this grant, he crossed Cooks River, looked around, and selected his 50 acres at the top of a ridge. John Parkes' property was situated in the centre of Earlwood.
Brief history - opened to farming in the 1850s. Originally known as Parkestown, it was then Forest Hill before adopting the name of a real estate development within its boundaries in 1905.

Eastern Creek - origin unknown. The name may well have been adopted because the creek was to the east of the earliest settlements in the area. It remained dotted with market gardens and dairy farms well into the 20th century.

East Hills - the name was first used to describe the whole area south of Bankstown to the Georges River and east to The River Road. The name is commonly thought to be derived from that of the farmhouse of Robert Gardiner, a tenant of the area's first land grantee. Why that name was used is a mystery - it is not east of Sydney or its nearest neighbour, Bankstown, nor is it hilly. The fact that its neighouring suburb - Panania - was once part of East Hills may hold a clue. The name 'Panania' is derived from either an Aboriginal word meaning "sun rising in the east and shining on the hills" or a reference to a location identified as being where the sun can be seen rising in the east over hills. Perhaps East Hills is simply the English version of the name or phrase by which the its original Aboriginal inhabitants identified the location.

First granted - to Robert Gardiner in 1810.
Brief history - extensively farmed, with some market garden activity until the area was subdivided and sold for residential purposes in 1893.

Eastlakes - named after the lakes once known as Botany Swamps, they being the eastern lakes of the Botany Swamps. Brief history - the lakes after which the locality is named were used as one of Sydney's main water supplies until the 1870s. Early settlement began around the pumping station. Most of the lakes have since been reclaimed for airport extensions and a golf course.

East Sydney - the eastern part of Sydney. East Sydney once included Alexandria which was the site of Sydney's first dairies and market gardens.

Eastwood - taken from the name of the property of the first landowner in the area, William Rutlidge, and recalls the name of a village in England. Brief history - Eastwood was originally known as Brush Farm, the name of the property of two early settlers, John and Gregory Blaxland (the latter was one of three men who pioneered the crossing of the Blue Mountains in 1813). In the 19th century, Eastwood was known as East Brush. Subdivided in the 1920s.

Ebenezer - the name is of Hebrew origin and means "thus far God has helped us". It was given to the community established here by Australia's first Presbyterians. The name was first referred to in 1 Samuel 7 v12: "Then Samuel took a stone and set it up between Mizpah and Shen. He named it Ebenezer, saying, 'Thus far has the LORD helped us'."
Brief history: in 1802 a number of English and Scottish nonconformists arrived as free settlers in Sydney. They first settled in and around present day Auburn and Rookwood, and named their community Liberty Plains. They established farms with the hope of soon becoming self sufficient but found the soil too poor and moved to the Hawkesbury. The Presbyterian Church of Australia had its humble beginnings on the banks of the Hawkesbury River in 1803. The Ebenezer community had formed a society or congregation and soon went to work towards the erection of their church. They cut the stone into blocks and brought it to the site, some contributed produce off their farms. The result of their labours, the Presbyterian Church at Ebenzer, still stands and is the oldest church in Australia.

Edensor Park - the name recalls an early pioneer homestead in the area. It was named after Edensor, in Derbyshire, England, which is a township, parish and village. The village is beautifully situated within the park of Chatsworth.
Brief history: like its surrounding suburbs, Edensor Park was farmland until the 1970's, when it was developed into a residential settlement, continuing an ongoing growth trend in the western Sydney area.

Edgecliff - recalls a prominent inland rocky cliff between Rushcutters Bay and Double Bay, much of which has since been quarried out. Brief history: Edgecliff grew with the other suburbs nearby as part of the first area outside of Sydney to be residential. The suburb was serviced by Sydney's only cable tram from 1894 to 1905 when the service was electrified.

Edmondson Park - believed to be named after John Hurst Edmondson, the first man to win a Victoria Cross in World War II. John, the only son of Joseph William and Maude Elizabeth (nee Hurst), was born in Wagga Wagga in 1914. Shortly afterwards his family moved to a property on what is now Camden Valley Way near the Crossroads in the Liverpool area, which they called Forest Home. Early in 1939, John enlisted as a reserve soldier in the 4th Battalion (The Australian Rifles). He sailed for the Middle East in 1941 where his unit was engaged in the Battle of Tobruk, where he lost his life saving the life of his commanding officer. The posthumous award of the Victoria Cross was presented to John's parents in July 1941.
The area around the family home tended to remain a relatively unknown and undeveloped part of Liverpool. However with increasing development the area will continue to grow.

Elanora Heights - the name is of Aboriginal origin and either means 'home (or camp) by the sea' or was the name of a particular location. Some of the suburbs' streets recall Aboriginal place names. Brief history: Gov. Phillip passed through the area on his first expedition into the area in 1788. It was here that botanist George Caley collected plant specimens for Sir Joseph Banks in 1800. Ninety years later tests were made to verify the viability of mining coal deposits under the area. A seam of coal was struck at 580 metres but it was non-bituminous. Natural gas was later discovered at 370 metres and piped for a while to nearby cottages but it also proved unviable as a commercial venture.

Elderslie - one of the oldest districts of the Macarthur region, Elderslie is taken from the name of the property of T.C. Harrington, Assistant Colonial Secretary, 1834, which was named after a village in Scotland. The name is associated with Scottish patriot William Wallace Braveheart (1270-1305) Son of Sir Malcolm Wallace, who was a landowner of Ellerslie (now Elderslie), Ayrshire, Scotland. Brief history: since the beginning of settlement the Nepean River has been a vital part of this area's history. Once the cattle that had strayed from the colony in 1788 were discovered at the Cowpastures, two constables were stationed in a hut c.1805 on the eastern side of the river at Elderslie, upstream from the present Cowpasture Bridge, to protect the Colony's Herd. Elderslie is part of the land that was granted by Governor Lachlan Macquarie to John Oxley (he received 1,000acres in 1815 at Kirkham and 850acres in 1816 at Ellerslie).

Elizabeth Bay - taken from the nearby bay, which was named by Governor Macquarie in honour of his wife, Elizabeth Henrietta Campbell (right). The bay's Aboriginal name is Yarrandebby; Macleay Point's Aboriginal name is Jerrewon. First granted to Colonial Secretary Alexander Macleay who built Elizabeth Bay House on his 22 Ha grant. Macleay's original grant was subdivided for flats and villas between 1882 and 1927.

Elvina Bay: A small village of holiday homes, possibly named after a vessel.

Emerton - Recalls William Frederick Emert, a German migrant from Siglingen, Wuttemberg, who established a general store and post office at Mount Druitt in 1861. Emert bought 3 parcels of land on the north side of Mt. Druitt in 1872, and oversaw the running of these lands with the help of his son Philip. In 1881, he paid £150 ($300) for the land now bounded by the Great Western Highway, Nelson Street, Ropes Creek Road and Mt. Druitt Road. In 1884, the Emert's built a house on the corner of Mt. Druitt Rd. and Ropes Creek Rd and named it Siglingen House, after William's home town in Germany. The house still stands within the grounds of Bethel Christian Academy in Mt. Druitt Road. Emert's wife Rosina, also made a valuable contribution to the early development of the local area. A mother of five children, she ran a very successful general store in the area which also incorporated a post office, and later, a bakery. Originally called Emert Town, the name was later simplified to Emerton. The streets in Emerton are named after famous German poets and musicians.

Emu Heights - The name was formally assigned in early 19766 and is a neighbourhood within the suburb of Emu Plains. Residential development in the area, the topography, and the already growing usage of the name before 1976, all contributed to the name's official assignation.

Emu Plains - The name is thought to have originated with the earliest sighting of emus in the Sydney region when the country was first explored by Europeans in the late 1780's. The locality was first known as Emu Island as early as 1808 - the name originating with Captain Watkin Tench (1758?-1833), who first explored the region. In 1814 Governor Macquarie referred to Emu Plains, which officially heralded the area's change of name. Up to this date the area had obviously been thought of as an island.
The reason for this can possibly be explained by a contemporary observer, Barron Field, Judge of the Supreme Court of New South Wales. Field noted that Emu Plains had been called Emu Island because the plains had, at times, been turned into an island by the "washing of the mountains when the Nepean ... flooded". Another explanation claims that the name Emu Island originated because the Nepean River was divided near Emu Ford, thus forming an island. The island has slowly disappeared through constant excavation caused by the need for blue metal in modern construction.
Governor Macquarie established a government farm at Emu Plains in 1819. Here convicts cleared the land and grew wheat, tobacco and other crops for many years. Land was not available for private settlement until the early 1830's, when a town named Emu was surveyed.

Enfield / Enfield South - named after the early market town of Enfield in Middlesex, England (right), but the reason is not known. The name is known to have been in use as early as 1853 when Enfield Post Office opened in Richard Fulljames' store near St Thomas's Church.
Brief history - a heavily timbered area, first granted to a private in the NSW Corps, William Faithful, in 1792. It was later owned by Simeon Lord, a former convict who became one of the richest men in the colony. In 1822 it was bought by W.H. Moore who cleared the land for farming.

Engadine / South Engadine - two theories as to the origin of the name abound: 1. from an Aboriginal word meaning 'black rock'. 2. it is the name of property of an early settler, Charles McAlister, who named his home thus because the surrounding area reminded him of Engadine in Switzerland. The name was officially adopted for the district when the railway station was thus named in 1924.
Brief history: the first white settler was John Lucas, who established a flour milling business here in 1825. By 1843 the mill had burnt down and the property was up for sale. Surveyor Darke moved into the area a year later with a gang of convicts who cut a path through the bush for a road to the Illawarra which is still followed by today's Princes Highway. Relics from the convict chain gang such as chains and an oven have been found in the bush here in recent times. After World War I, land here was subdivided into small farms that were settled by war veterans. Many street names recall the battles they fought as well as others in British military history. Music composers and famous Australians from the 19th century are also recalled in street names.

Enmore - taken from the name of the estate of Capt. Sylvester Brown, which was built in 1835 on land near the intersection of Enmore and Stanmore Roads.
Brief history - Brown's property was partly cleared for cattle grazing in the 1830s and stayed that way until the railway platform was built in the 1860s. Enmore Estate was subdivided into small farms in 1841. The surrounding area, which was part of Petersham, was extensively subdivided and built up in the land sales boom of the 1860s under the name, Stanmore Road. The name Enmore was adopted for the locality in 1895.

Epping / North Epping - The name was adopted in 1899 on the recommendation of William Midson, a well known resident whose father was born near Epping Forest in Surrey, England (above). When the railway line through the district opened, the local station was called Field of Mars. It was soon changed to Carlingford, but when the Carlingford post office opened in a nearby locality, a new name was sought to avoid confusion. Field of Mars Common is a name recorded on early maps by Gov. Phillip for the whole district surrounding Ryde, which included the locality now known as Epping. It refers to a flood plain of the Tiber River which in ancient Roman times was the site of the altar of Mars and the temple of Apollo. By the 1st century BC, the plains had been drained and filled with large public buildings, the most famous being The Pantheon. Why Phillip named the area after the ancient Roman site is not known, though it has been suggested that its early occupants were disciples of Mars. Brief history - part of the Field of Mars Common, being land first granted to Captain William Kent in 1796. It was Kent who, together with his nephew Lieut. William Kent, and Capt. Waterhouse, introduced merino sheep from the Cape of Good Hope to NSW in 1796. Street names

Ermington - took its name from the mansion of Major Edmund Lockyer (right), remembered as the founder of the settlement at Albany, Western Australia. Before he came to the area, it was part of the Eastern Hills and the Field of Mars region where Governor Phillip had granted land to eight marines around 1792 and was known as One Tree Hill. Lockyer was appointed Police Magistrate to Parramatta. 'Ermington House' was completed in 1828. Lockyer acquired more land in the area and by 1830 he had over 1900 hectares on which grazed 1280 sheep and over 300 cattle. He died in 1860. The riverside farmland that was once Ermington was gradually transformed with young married couples buying cheap land here after World War II, very often taking several years to build their own homes. It was also an area where a large amount of public housing was constructed (built by the Housing Commission of New South Wales). Many of the original homebuilders still live in Ermington today.

Erskine Park - named after James Erskine, the colony's Lieutenant-Governor who took up office in 1817. Erskine was born in 1765 in Ireland and was a career soldier who fought in the West Indies, Ireland and the Peninsular Campaigns. He arrived with his regiment in Sydney on the Matilda in August 1817.
Created in 1980, the suburb's name was a matter of controversy with disagreement over whether it should be St Clair or Erskine Park. In the end, two suburbs were created so that both names could be used.

Erskineville / Erskineville South - name taken from an early residence, Erskine Villa, which was the home of a colonial Wesleyan minister, Rev. George Erskine. It was part of Macdonaldtown until 1893. Early history: the Superintendent of Convicts, Nicholas Devine, built a house called Burren Farm near the present day corner of George Street and Erskineville Road, Macdonaldtown. On Devine's death at 104 in 1830, the property was subdivided and sold, one of the buyers being Rev. George Erskine. 20 years later, a man named John Devine who said he was a descendent of Devine made claim to the whole of the area and for a number of years he made three unsuccessful attempts in the law courts to take possession of the land. Eventually, the residents established a fund with which they paid him off for his alleged losses.

Eschol Park - named after the property of William Fowler (right), a Campbelltown storekeeper and postmaster, which still stands in the suburb. The earliest sections of the old homestead were built about 1816 (see Eagle Vale). The property's awkward spelling led to the name being misspelt as Eschol rather than Eshcol. In 1975, when plans for a suburb at the site were under way, the Geographical Names Board inadvertently approved the use of the wrong spelling.
Brief history: in 1858 William Fowler bought the Eagle Vale homestead and re-named it Eshcol Park as he intended to develop a vineyard there. The reference is Biblical to the Promised Land of Eshcol which had prosperous vineyards. Fowler established an extensive vineyard and winery and within a decade or so, was producing 2000 to 3000 gallons of award-winning wines. Ownership of the property passed through a number of hands until the 1890s when the phylloxera disease struck the vineyard, and Eschol Park was devastated. The area remained rural hills, dominated by dairy cattle, until the mid-1980s, when it was subdivided and developed as a new suburb of Campbelltown. The suburb created on the land immediately surrounding the homestead was called Eschol Park; that part of the Eschol Park property to the east of Eagle Creek was named Eagle Vale. Eschol Park's streets are named after varieties of grapes used in winemaking.

Evan - one of the original districts of the County of Cumberland. It originally approximated the area of the current City of Penrith boundaries with the exception that the eastern boundary was almost the entire length of South Creek compared with the present eastern boundary which is South Creek and Rope's Creek. The border to the west was the Nepean River. The name of the district derived from Evan Nepean (1752-1822) who, as Under-Secretary of State in the Home Department in Britain, dispatched the First Fleet and headed the administration of the Colony in its early years. The name still remains in the form of a street name of Penrith.

Eveleigh - name taken from that of the estate of the first land grantee in the area, Lieut. William Holden, who named it after his birthplace in Devon, England. The estate is now part of Redfern. James Chisholm, also a grantee in the area, called his property Golden Grove, It was resumed in 1878 to build the Eveleigh Railway Workshops. A section of it was subdivided in about 1881. The small allotments in it were advertised as workmen's dwellings and most home building occurred there during the late 1880s. The name Golden Grove is still used today.

Fairfield / Fairfield East / Fairfield West / Fairfield Heights - built on land first granted to Captain John Horsley, the name comes from the Mark Lodge Estate which was the home of Capt. Horsley. It is believed that the name was given by a trustee of the Estate who had associations with Fairfield in England. Alternatively it was named after the fair field owned by Gabriel Louis Marie Huon de Kerrileau. Fairfield was also the name of Thomas Ware Smart's home when the railway line was being constructed, and the name was adopted for the station which was in close proximity to the site selected for the station in 1856.

Fairlight - named after Fairlight House, the home of the founding father of Manly, developer Henry Gilbert Smith, who first bought land at Manly for development purposes in 1853. He built his sandstone house in 1838 and named it Fairlight after an historic village near Hastings on the south coast of England. The property was partly subdivided for residential development in 1885 and 1902. Fairlight House survived until its demolition in 1939. Its front garden wall facing Fairlight Beach is the only part of the house to have survived.

Fairy Bower - the headland of Cabbage Tree Bay, Manly, believed to be thus named as it was a nesting place for fairy penguins.

Fiddletown - In the 1890s William Small and Horace and Fred Henstock were granted land in the area subject to the residence clause, that is, they had to spend at least one night per week on the property. To liven up their evenings they learnt to play the fiddle and played at local dances in the Galston area, and hence the name.

Five Dock - the reason for the name is obscure, though it is commonly believed it refers to five natural crevices on this headland. If this is so, only two of these crevices remain. It was first used for Five Dock Farm, the property of the original grantee, Surgeon John Harris, who took possession in 1806.
Brief history: the land around Five Dock, including Abbotsford, had originally been granted to Surgeon John Harris and he called the estate Five Dock Farm. In 1836, Five Dock Farm was bought by the auctioneer Samuel Lyons who subdivided it into smaller estates of between 12 and 24 hectares under the name of Renwick. The names of the smaller properties are recalled in the names of localities or landmarks which were once part of Five Dock Farm - Russell Lea, the property of pastoral and mining magnate Russell Banton (1830-1916); Rodd Point and Rodd Island. Five Dock was further subdivided for residential development in the land boom of the 1880s when it took on the shape and character of the suburb we see today

Flemington - taken from the name of the original grantee, John Fleming, a free settler. It was originally part of a larger area known as Liberty Plains, because it was here that the colony's first free settlers were given land. They were known as liberty men and women and were mainly cattle grazers who established cattle yards and markets for their produce on the site now occupied by Flemington Markets. Liberty Plains was the stamping ground of Australia's first bushranger, John Cesar, who roamed the area and robbed travellers at musket point. He was shot dead in the Flemington area in 1796 after a price was placed on his head. The area south of the railway was part of the Glebe (Church Lands) until 1841 when it was acquired by Joseph Hyde Potts (see Birrong). Some streets in this area recall his family members. Many of Flemington's streets are named after members of Strathfield Council at the time of subdivision.

Forest Glen - a correspondent of the Sydney Morning Herald in 1831 first suggested there should be a halfway house between Best's Inn (Middle Dural) and Wiseman's Inn (Hawkesbury River). This is approximately the area of Forest Glen. In 1832 the Maroota Government Village was established to house army veterans, but the soil was so poor the settlement failed. For many years positions on the Great North Road were identified mainly by stands of usable timber, such as Beckett Forest and Maroota Forest. The thickly wooded forests of Dural were often remarked upon, and became known to the correspondents of the Sydney Press with the building of the Great North Road, constructed during the late 1820s to connect Sydney with settlements on the Hunter River.

Forest Lodge - named after the house of Ambrose Foss, a chemist and co-founder of the Congregational Church in New South Wales, who set up residence there at 208-210 Bridge Road in 1836. It is assumed he named it thus as the area was originally open forest and perhaps it had yet to be cleared when he moved in. Part of The Glebe (land granted for use by the Church in 1789), a section of it to the west of Orphan School Creek was granted to Gov. William Bligh. By the 1850s, Forest Lodge and Glebe were being subdivided and the suburbs as we know them today began to be formed.

Forestville - a name meaning 'home in the forest', possibly first used as a reference to James Harris French's dwelling. French was a settler who began extensive woodcutting activities in the blue gum forests of the area in 1856.
Brief history: after much of the timber was cleared the land remained largely unused until 1915 when large tracts were acquired to create soldier settlement farms. The soil was of poor quality and the area was isolated, which led to the scheme's failure. Even the construction of the original Roseville Bridge, which made access easier, failed to attract settlers. Only a few farms survived until after World War II when the area became swallowed up as part of the Sydney metropolitan area.

Fox Valley - a locality within the suburb of Wahroongah. The name appears to have been given because it was common to hunt foxes here. Fox Valley Road was a major early access route for timber-getters and orchardists.

Frenchs Forest - recalls James Harris French, who acquired land in the area in 1856 and established a major timber cutting and milling operation, which cleared most of the dense forests of the area. He operated two sawmills on Frenchs Forest Road, which was the main thoroughfare. It led to Beacon Hill and was the only accessway into the area at that time. French shipped his timber to Sydney from a wharf on Bantry Bay which he accessed via a track which became Bantry Bay Road. Development of the area was slow until after World War I when many farms were established. These were replaced by houses after World War II.

Galston - name taken from Galston Creek which joins Berowra Creek at Galston Gorge. The name Galston was suggested by Alexander Hutchison who came from a village of that name in Scotland (right). The name was officially adopted in 1887. Galston Gorge is located north of Hornsby where the Hornsby-Galston road crosses Berowra Creek. A track through the gorge had existed since the opening of the railway line in the 1880s but it was very steep and difficult to negotiate. The road through Galston Gorge was constructed between 1891-1893 using men left unemployed as a result of the 1890s depression. Surveyor Ebsworth surveyed the route and put in seven hairpin bends on the steep eastern side of the gorge. The two wooden McDonald Truss bridges were built from materials that had been man-handled down the cliffs with ropes and pulleys.

Georges Hall - derived from George's Hall, the name of the first home in the area, that of Captain George Johnston. It was located on Prospect Creek at Garrison Point near present day Henry Lawson Drive and Beatty Parade. Johnston later moved to Annandale and was instrumental in the arrest of Gov. William Bligh. Johnston's third son David took over the Georges Hall farm and was appointed superintendent of herds and stock. The farmhouse was used as an administration centre, military outpost and reporting centre for convicts, hence the name of the location (Garrison Point). Street names commemorate decorated World War I soldiers.

Georges Heights - named after George III, the reigning king when the First Fleet left Portsmouth. The name was given by Gov. Macquarie to a tract of land he had set aside here for a family of aborigines when he unsuccessfully attempted to teach the agricultural ways of the white man to the native population. Much of the area has remained virgin bush and has been used extensively for military purposes due to its strategic position opposite Sydney Heads.

Gilead - taken from the name of the 160 ha. farm of Reuben Uther, who settled here in 1812. Reuben Uther was the first white settler in the area. A devout Jew, he named his property after one of Israel's finest farm regions of Biblical times, with golden fields of wheat that flourished on the River Jordan plain.
Brief history: In 1818, Reuben Uther's estate was sold to Thomas Rose, a prominent person in the early development of Campbelltown. He renamed the property Mount Gilead. It has remained farm land to this day but has been earmarked for future residential development consisting of 20,000 new homes. The effects of pollution on the Nepean River from the development must first be addressed. If suburbia does go ahead in the future, it will be physically separated from Rosemeadow by a large bushland park called Noorumba Reserve, which is Aboriginal for hunting ground.

Girraween - from an Aboriginal name said to mean 'the place where the flowers grow'.
Brief history: it was part of D'Arcy Wentworth's estate granted in 1799 which included the notorious Toongabbie convict farm. Dairy farming was practised until 1910 when it was subdivided for suburban development.

Gladesville - commemorates the first settler, John Glade, who arrived as a convict in 1791 to serve a 7 year sentence. He died in 1848 and was buried in St Anne's Cemetery.
John Doody, a convict artist, was granted the first land in the area on the waterfront in 1795. Glade followed 11 years later, buying Doody's property so as to extend his own in 1817. James Squire was a neighbour who lived at Bedlam Point. Glade's farm was subdivided into smaller farms and sold in 1841, by which time the Great North Road had been constructed through the area. Tarban Creek Asylum, now known as Gladesville Hospital, was completed at Bedlam Point in 1838, by which time its name had been corrupted to Bedlam Point which was deemed more appropriate for the site of a lunatic asylum. A bridge, which replaced the Bedlam Point punt service, was completed in 1881 and attracted many new residents to the area. The bridge was replaced by the present Gladesville Bridge in 1964.

Glebe / Glebe Island - Glebe is an old English term for land devoted to the maintenance of an incumbent of the Anglican Church. The land now bearing this name is part of a much larger tract of land which was set aside for church purposes by Gov. Phillip in 1789.
Brief history: the Glebe remained largely unused until much of it was sold off and subdivided into large estates in 1828. These estates became fashionable and many residences for the rich and famous were erected during the early years of the Victorian era. By the 1880s most of these estates had been further subdivided into suburban housing lots now occupied by working class terraces and cottages.

Glen Alpine - named after an historic homestead which stands, fully restored, off Belltrees Close.
Brief history: an earlier homestead named Glen Alpine was built by the Reddall family in the late 1820s. Rev. Thomas Reddall was the first Anglican clergyman ever appointed to Campbelltown and served as its rector of St Peter's Church in Cordeaux Street from 1823 until his death 15 years later. The house which is now called Glen Alpine was built by James Sheil before World War I. His family took over the property around 1900, and held it until the 1950s. In the early 1970s, the grassy hills were earmarked for future development, and in 1976 the name was approved but development did not proceed as the NSW Water Board was unable to sewer the area for almost a decade. In 1986, the development of an upmarket suburb for high income earners was finally given the go-ahead, it being launched at the richest golfing tournament ever seen in the district at Campbelltown's new championship golf course.

Glenbrook - so named by the late Alfred Stephen. The name was suggested not only for being pleasant, but also suggestive of water and of low grounds, a name considered descriptive of the locality. It was originally called Brookdale.

Glendenning - named after a Blacktown butcher, W. Glendenning. He owned a butcher's shop and slaughterhouse in what is now Glendenning Rd.

Glenfield - the name of a 1500 acre grant, it was named after the village of Glenfield near Leicester, England, the birthplace of grantee and explorer Dr. Charles Throsby, a naval surgeon. Throsby served on Norfolk Island and at Newcastle and was awarded this land grant on his retirement. Ironically, none of present day Glenfield is part of the original Glenfield grant. The Glenfield property was located further north, near Casula, and only came as far south as The Crossroads.
Brief history: parish maps show the earliest land grantees along the fertile banks of the Georges River were William Day, William Keele and Aaron Byrne. The land now occupied by Glenfield was originally part of the Macquarie Field property which had belonged to James Meehan. It remained farm land until 1881 when the first subdivisions of present day Glenfield were marketed. But because another subdivision south of Bunbury-Curran Creek had already been called Macquarie Fields, a name had to be found. At that time, consideration was being given to the future of a platform named Glenfield which was on the original Glenfield grant and stood close to where the East Hills line branches off the main southern line today. The platform was rarely used so in 1891 it was decided to kill two birds with one stone and move this now disused platform down the line to the new subdivision. The Glenfield name was retained for the station and applied to the new housing estate. Glenfield saw its greatest development as a residential area after World War II. Many of Glenfield's streets were named after early residents and family members of the developers. The streets of a 1970s subdivision are named after locations in New Guinea as a result of the town planner involved in the development having been a patrol officer in Papua New Guinea.

Glenhaven - possibly from the descriptive 'glen' and 'The Haven' (the southern part of the valley). The name was chosen in 1894 because the previous name, Sandhurst, became too often confused with a locality in Melbourne. History: Upper Glenhaven developed into an elite hobby farm area on five acre subdivisions, from the 1950s, when Green Belt minimum subdivision standards were applied to agricultural land adjoining the Green Belt. Dams were sunk, horses and stud cattle grazed and large houses were built.

Glenmore Park - recalls the name of the single-storey cottage built by Henry Cox and his wife, formerly Frances Mackenzie, in 1825. The house and old sandstone stables are now part of the Glenmore Country Club. The Glenmore Park estate was officially opened in February 1990 and is built on part of what was Sir John Jamison's property, Regent Villa, built in 1823.

Glenorie - the name was chosen in 1894. It is a Scottish name suggested by William Black, a local resident when a replacement was being found for its original name of North Dural, which was causing confusion. Two new names were proposed by local residents: Hazledene and Glenorie. The latter was accepted by the Postmaster General because it had the support of the Progress Association. History: the largest of the land grants along the Great North Road, 1500 acres to George Acres in 1831, is the historical area. It straddled the Great North Road at its junction with Cattai Ridge. The population in 1991 was 1145. Like Galston it was a citrus growing area. Street names

Glossodia - named after a small genus of orchids (right) found here. This species is terrestrial, favouring dry forests, grassy forests, dry woodlands, heaths, grasslands (including pastures), dunes (including stabilised sands) and disturbed areas. Flowers are purple-blue or mauve-purple.

Golden Grove - the name of the property of James Chisholm, the grantee of this section of Darlington.
Brief history: James Chisholm's property was resumed in 1878 to build the Eveleigh Railway Workshops. A section of it was subdivided in about 1881. The small allotments in it were advertised as 'workmen's dwellings' and most home building occurred there during the late 1880s. The name Golden Grove is still used today.

Gordon - the name Gordon had its origin as the Gordondale Estate, the estate owned by Robert McIntosh in what is now central Gordon. McIntosh's estate had in turn taken its name from the Parish of Gordon, in the County of Cumberland named in the Surveyor-Generalship of Sir Thomas Mitchell (1828-1855). This parish roughly corresponded with the area of the Shire of Ku-Ring-Gai, gazetted in 1906. The name Gordon was allocated by Mitchell to honour a superior officer and friend, Sir James Willoughby Gordon, who held the position of Quartermaster-General of the Horse Guards, London. Gordon was accepted as an official place-name when the post office changed its name from Lane Cove to Gordon in 1879.

Gore Hill - commemorates the first land grantee, William Gore, a Provost Marshal under Gov. Hunter and Bligh. When the latter was arrested in the Rum Rebellion of 1808, Gore was also arrested and became one of Australia's first political prisoners. The rebel government sent him to Coal River (Newcastle) where he worked for several years alongside ordinary convicts. In 1810, Gov. Macquarie restored him to his former office and granted him land which today is bounded by Mowbray Road, Elizabeth Street to Artarmon Station and by a line north from Chelmsford Avenue to Mowbray Road.

Graham's Hill - a name no longer in common use which recalls John Graham, an early settler. The name was once used for a platform on the Campbelltown to Camden railway line which no longer exists.

Granville / Granville North / South Granville - named in honour of George Levison Gower, 2nd Earl Granville, Marquis of Stafford (1815-1891), who was Britain's Colonial Secretary in 1851 and Foreign Minister in 1870-74 and 1880-85. The land was part of an original grant to a consortium of settlers including John Harris and W.C. Wentworth which they named Drainwell Estate. When the railway arrived in September 1855, the station here, which was the terminus on the Parramatta end of the Parramatta to Sydney railway, was named Parramatta Junction. The present name was adopted in 1880 by the vote of a public meeting honouring the man who at the time was the British Foreign Minister.

Grasmere - said to be the name of a property located here and owned by WH Paling, a leading 19th century Sydney businessman who began trading in sheet music and musical instruments in 1884. It would have been named after Grasmere in England's Lake District.

Grays Point - from the feature, which was possibly named after settlers Samuel William Gray or John Edward Gray. William Gray owned 50 acres of land here; John Edward Gray was a ranger for the nearby Royal National Park and a well known local identity.

Great Mackerel Beach: named for the abundance of fish often caught there. The location consists of a number of holiday homes.

Green Valley - descriptive name for the region.
The Green Valley suburb originally covered a much greater area than it does today. In 1961, before the development of the Housing Commission Green Valley settlement it appears to have covered an area which included the Green Valley District as well as the present Green Valley suburb. The present Green Valley is on land originally granted to Peter Miller, CA Scrivener, James Bull and Bridget Peters. Miller was brought to Australia from Limerick, Ireland, by his parents when he was a baby. His father, Amos Miller is credited with having grown the first crops of wheat at Carnes Hill sometime about 1840. Amos Miller later moved to Cawdor, near Camden. About 1880 a portion of his property was sold to a syndicate led by Varney Parkes, son of Sir Henry Parkes, the architect of Rosebank which still remains, in Speed Street, Liverpool today.

Greenacre - named for the contrasting green of an acre of ground cleared for cultivation alongside the first road through the area. The name was adopted in 1909 as Greenacre Park for the first land division in the area which was near Bankstown station. Originally known as East Bankstown.

Greendale - named after an 1811 land grant to Mary Birch who named her property Greendale.
Brief history: the first European to visit the Greendale area was the botanist and explorer, George Caley, who passed through the area in October 1800. Later he discovered Bents Basin, which he named Dovedale. Caley's Lookout at Bents Basin is named after him. By 1811 land in the area had been granted to Mary Birch, Ellis Bent; JT Campbell; GT Palmer; John Palmer and Samuel Fowler. The district of Greendale was a thriving wheat-growing district for many years from about 1815. Greendale continued as a large wheat farming community until 1861 when wheat rust struck crops followed by another in 1863. This spelt the beginning of the end for Greendale as a wheat growing area. Only a few people remained in Greendale, but when they died the district died with them. In the early 1960s it was sold and subdivided it into 25 acre lots.

Green Valley - descriptive name for a Housing Commission development near Liverpool between 1961 and 1965. From the development emerged the suburbs of Green Valley, Ashcroft, Busby, Heckenberg, Miller, Mount Pritchard, Cartwright and Sadlier. The new homes replaced dairy farms, market gardens and poultry farms. Many of the streets of Green Valley have Aboriginal names.

Greenwich - name believed to have been taken from the property of George Green, Greenwich House, which he built here and would have been named after Greenwich on the Thames River, England (below). Coincidentally, Greenwich is one of many localities fronting the Parramatta River which are named after towns on the River Thames. Greenwich was subdivided and lots sold in 1840. The settlement on the point was slow to develop, there being only 16 houses there by the 1880s. Community website

Greystanes - named after the home of Nelson Lawson, third son of explorer William Lawson. The house was demolished in 1926 and the site is now under the waters of Prospect Reservoir. Brief history: Greystanes remained semi rural until the 1950s when it was incorporated with the urban sprawl.

Gronos Point - a locality about 3 km NNE of Pitt Town, formerly known as Hominy Point. The name recalls an early Hawkesbury settler.

Grose Wold / Grose Vale - take their names from the Grose River which runs through them. The Grose River was named by Captain William Paterson in September, 1793 after the Colony's Lt. Governor, Francis Grose.

Guildford / Guildford East / Guildford Heights / Guildford North - the name is taken from the property of retired army officer Lieut. Samuel North, a 640 acre grant covering the present suburb, which North took possession of in 1817. It is believed his property was named in honour of his great uncle, Lord Frederick North, the Earl of Guildford (right). Brief history: a large tract of land in the suburb's north was reserved by Gov. Phillip for use in the support of teachers and clergy. It was eventually subdivided and sold in 1872. Subdivision throughout the area was stepped up with the opening of the railway station in 1876. The settlement which grew up around the station was called Guildford whereas the original settlement on Woodville Road towards Villawood became known as Old Guildford.

Gundamaian - appears to be of Aboriginal origin but its meaning is unknown. It appears to have a similar origin to nearby Maianbar as they share the phrase 'maian'.

Gymea / Gymea Bay - Aboriginal name for the tall, red-flowering native lily which used to be prolific in the area. The name was first recorded by WAB Greaves, a government surveyor when he went through the area in 1855.
Brief history: Gymea developed slower than surrounding suburbs, and its development as a residential area did not pick up pace until the Sutherland to Cronulla railway was opened in 1939.

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