The Names of Sydney: Suburbs A to C
Abbotsbury - derived from the name of the estate 'Abbotsbury' granted in 1806 to Major Edward Abbott, which is situated immediately to the north of this suburb. Abbotsford - the name was first given to the home of doctor, philanthropist and cabinet minister Arthur Renwick. Built in 1890, it was named after Abbotsford House (below) near Melrose Avenue on the Tweed River where 19th century poet and novelist Sir Walter Scott lived when he wrote his Waverley novels. Aboriginal name: Bigi Bigi.
First granted: part of Five Dock Farm, it was subdivided in 1837 under the name of Renwick.
Brief history: the land around Five Dock, including Abbotsford, had originally been granted to Surgeon John Harris and he called the estate Five Dock Farm. In 1836, Five Dock Farm was bought by the auctioneer Samuel Lyons who subdivided it into smaller estates of between 12 and 24 hectares. One of these, then named 'Feltham' was bought by George Renwick who arrived in Australia from Scotland in 1841. George Renwick's son, Arthur, graduated from Sydney University in Medicine in 1857 and furthered his studies in Edinburgh, Glasgow and Paris. When he returned to Sydney, Renwick practised as one of Sydney's leading physicians. His achievements included being elected the first President of the New South Wales Branch of the British Medical Association, a founder of the Benevolent Society's Royal Hospital for Women at Paddington (now closed), Vice-Chancellor of the University of Sydney, President of the Board of Sydney Hospital and a member of the New South Wales Legislative Council from 1887 to 1908.
Agnes Banks - this is the name Andrew Thompson (1773?-1810) gave to his 278 acres of land on the banks of the Nepean River near the Yarramundi Lagoon. The land was granted to Thompson by Governor King in 1804. Thompson named it in honour of his mother, Agnes Hilson, and rented it out to suitable tenants. Thompson arrived in New South Wales as a convict in 1792 and, after his pardon in 1797, grew famous as a trader, ship owner, brewer and pastoralist and was described by Governor Macquarie as the "Father of Windsor".
Airds - named by Governor Macquarie in 1810 in honour of his wife Elizabeth's family estate in Scotland.
Brief history: Macquarie subdivided the area into small farming lots for free settlers. By 1816, Macquarie's small farms had been swallowed up into a few large farms which bred cattle and sheep. Its early settlers included First Fleet surgeon William Redfern and emancipated convict James Ruse and Sydney innkeeper Thomas Rose. For years, the name Airds regularly appeared in land grant lists, and referred to almost the entire area between Glenfield and Gilead. But Campbelltown and other neighbouring settlements came to prominence after the 1820's and by the late 19th Century Airds had all but vanished. It wasn't until the 1970s when the Housing Commission announced a new residential subdivision here that Airds was again earmarked as a place name. At first, it was planned to erect nine storey tower flats, but the Council resisted the idea and it was eventually dropped. Up until its revival, Airds had been known either as either South Campbelltown or part of Kentlyn. Old Council maps show many of Airds' main streets existed prior to the development of the Housing Commission estate in the 1970's, but followed vastly different paths. The names of newer streets have a wool industry theme, due to the proximity of the Woolwash where the local wool clip was scoured to lighten it on its overland journey to the Sydney market.
Alexandria - was named Alexandria when it gained independence as a borough from Waterloo in 1868. The name honours Princess Alexandria , wife of the Prince of Wales who later became King Edward VII.
Brief history: early farms gave way to industry in the 1860s when a brickworks was established here. By the 1930s it was exclusively an industrial suburb.
Alfords Point - Alford was the name given to an area of Public Reserve bordering the south bank of the Georges River and also to a road leading to it from Old Illawarra Road, Menai. The area now bearing the name Alfords Point is a few kilometres downstream from 50 acres of land that was owned by Jane Alford, widow of James Snr. in 1828.
Allambie Heights - Aboriginal, meaning 'peaceful place'. The name was first used in 1918 when the area was subdivided and sold by auction for residential development.
Brief history: covered in dense forest until the 1850s when it was cleared for farming. Major suburban development took place after World War II when it became a popular place to establish a home among returned soldiers. Street names: many recall battles, people and places associated with the First and Second World War. Many of the streets in Allambie Heights are named after notable battles (particularly where Australian Troops served), and prominent allied political leaders of World War II. These include Moresby Place, Owen Stanley Avenue, Wewak Place, Kirra Road, Libya Crescent, Derna Crescent, Tobruk Avenue, Anzio Avenue, Roosevelt Avenue and Churchill Crescent.þ Darmour Ave is probably named after the Battle of Damour and simply a misspelling.
Allawah - an Aboriginal name meaning 'make your abode here' - said to be a name used by an Aboriginal tribe living around Botany Bay.
Brief history: an area of cleared forest until the 1890s when the railway came through. Allawah station was not built, however, until October 1925 when the local population had grown to such a degree that a station was deemed necessary between Carlton and Hurstville.
Ambarvale - named after the property of a former convict Samuel Larken who acquired land on the Appin Road in 1816. The farm did not actually stand on the site. It was located on the other side of Appin Road, where the suburb of St Helens Park has been developed.
Brief history: in 1816, Gov. Macquarie granted 36 ha to Samuel Larken (also spelt Larkin), noting it was to be called Ambarvale though no explanation was given to explain why. Larken (1772-1829), was a flamboyant artist from London who had been transported for life as a convict after stealing a watch and some silver spoons. Being a man of education, he was swiftly appointed to a high post by Governors King, Bligh and Macquarie and eventually won his absolute pardon. Within a decade small wheat farms dominated the rolling hills that are now known as Ambarvale. But these were replaced by dairies after rust disease ruined the crops in the 1860's. In March 1972, the State Government released the first paddocks for urban development. It was officially opened by a newly elected NSW Premier, Neville Wran, in June 1976. When the first plans to develop the suburb were drawn up in 1973, a contest was held among the staff of developer Lend Lease Corporation to come up with a street theme suggestion amid a crop of weird and wonderful ideas. Long-time employee, Joy Jarvis suggested using characters from the novels of famous 19th Century English author, Charles Dickens.
Annandale - derived from Annandale House, the home and estate of Colonel Johnston of the New South Wales Corps. Built in 1799, Annandale House was named after Annandale, Colonel Johnston's home town in Scotland .
Brief history: first granted in 1799 by Governor Phillip to Colonel Johnston. Extensive farming took place in the Sydney's inner west until after the goldrush of the 1850s when its neighbour, Leichhardt, was subdivided and became home to many who came to the city from the diggings. John Young, a businessman, architect and Mayor of Sydney, bought the Annandale estate from Johnston's son, Robert, in 1877 and set to work on creating a model suburb with wide, tree-lined avenues. He set the standard he hoped other would follow by building four iconic houses, two of which feature the picturesque "witch's hat" style of roof. One of these was Kenilworth, where Sir Henry Parkes died.
Annangrove - named after Annangrove House. The name is associated with George Johnston (1764-1823) who was born at Annandale in Scotland. He was a marine officer who arrived with the First Fleet. As Lieutenant-Governor in 1808 he was responsible for the controversial decision to arrest Governor Bligh. In 1793 he was granted 100 acres at Petersham and he named the property 'Annandale Farm'. He later received grants at a number of locations. His son George (1790-1820), a farmer and civil servant, was killed in a riding accident. This son owned Annangrove House, from whence the locality name derives.
Brief history: after timber getters had cleared the forests which covered the area, Johnston was the first to acquire land in the area in the 1880s, establishing an orchard and farm.
Arcadia - means a pastoral retreat. The grant to George Hall of 600 acres, on Marramarra Ridge, was given the name 'Arcadia', from the mythology of a rural utopia, in Greek legend. At the head of Calabash Creek, Arcadia was a pastoral area of farmlets and orchards. Arcadia was also known as Galston Heights in 1886, and another local theory suggests that the current name was adopted in 1894 when the public school opened. The name was suggested by G. Shearston, a retired Royal Navy Officer and resident. Shearston had visited Arcadia in Greece and he was reminded of Greece in the local area countryside. The name derives from a mountainous region in the Peloponnese which the ancient Greeks associated with the ideal rural life.
Brief history: timber getters established settlements here in 1817. Orchards and farms were planted as the timber getters moved out. Arcadia became popular for church retreats, having been home to Benedictine Monks and the Wesley Methodist Mission. Street names
Arncliffe - named after a grant made in 1883 to David Hannan, the first settler in the area. Hannan, who married the first white child born in Campbelltown, was Government Overseer of Brickmaking. The name was suggested by surveyor William Meadows Brownrigg, in memory of the village of Arncliffe (below) in Yorkshire, England. Arncliffe appears in the Doomsday Book of 1066 and means Eagle Cliff.
Brief history: Development to the south of Cooks River was slow due to access across the swamps between Arncliffe and Sydenham being difficult. The arrival of the railway in 1884 heralded a decade of strong development, with the area changing from farmlands to residential suburbia.
Arndell Park - recalls Thomas Arndell, surgeon of the First Fleet transport ship Friendship, who established Caddie Park, the ruins of which today are in the Cattai State Recreational Area. Part of the Blacks Town created Gov. Macquarie as a reserve for Aborigines, Arndell Park remained relatively undeveloped until well into the 20th century when it became one of the suburbs in a development scheme at Blacktown to create affordable housing for low-income families.
Artarmon - taken from Artarmon Farm, the name of the 150-acre 1810 grant of William Gore, the first settler, who was a provost-marshal. The name recalls Gore's family estate in Ireland.
Brief history: originally dense forest, it was cleared for farms and orchards in the early years of Gore's occupation. Subdivision and residential development did not begin until the coming of the north shore railway line in July 1898 when the original Artarmon station was opened. A new station was opened at a different site in October 1910.
Ashbury - a name coined by the merging of the names of two neighbouring suburbs - 'Ash' from Ashfield and 'bury' from Canterbury. Area was originally known as Goodlet's Bush, after pioneer settler John Hay Goodlet who purchased Canterbury House in 1878.
Brief history: first granted to First Fleet chaplain Rev. Richard Johnson. Among its other owners were Lt. William Cox and colonial trader Robert Campbell. Subdivided for residential development after World War I.
Ashcroft - named after the Ashcroft family who gave land in the area to the Housing Commission for its housing development here. The Ashcrofts were a pioneering family in the Liverpool area who were active in developing the local meat industry and the Homebush Abattoir. E.J. Ashcroft was a local butcher who had a term as the Mayor of Liverpool.
Ashfield - name given in 1817 by one of the first landowners, Robert Campbell, a Scottish merchant who did much to develop trade between Sydney and the rest of the world in Macquarie's time. Campbell named his property Ashfield Park after his family line, the Campbells of Ashfield, Argyllshire, Scotland.
Brief history: Campbell was one of a number of land grantees who were involved in the export of timber cut on their grants. As the land was cleared, it was subdivided into smaller farms and sold off. Further subdivision took place in the 1850s when it was swallowed up into Sydney's growing suburban area.
Asquith - Asquith was subdivided by H. Halloran & Co., when the Prime Minister of Britain was Herbert Asquith, First Earl of Oxford and Asquith. Other streets named after members of the Cabinet are Winston, Haldane and Baldwin.
Brief history: remained a mix of virgin bush and orchards until the arrival of the railway in the 1890s. The opening of the railway station in 1915 encouraged the subdivision and sale of land for housing after the war. Many new home owners were returned servicemen. The suburb's only claim to fame is the Wrigley Chewing Gum Factory, a model of its kind in Asquith's bushland. It was set up in 1958-60. The site is notable for its overall size, its architecture, engineering and landscape. Its significant features include a globe shaped water tower, which is a landmark that can be seen on the horizon from the railway south of Hornsby. Street names
Auburn - when the railway station was being built (1877), the Railways Department rejected Burford, the name suggested by a prominent local, Mr J.G. Mills after a village in Oxfordshire, England,, as it feared it may be confused with Burwood on the same line. Mills came up with Auburn as an alternative, after Auburn, the subject of Oliver Goldsmith's poem, The Deserted Village.
Brief history: explored in 1788, first European settlement took place in 1806. By 1823 it was extensively farmed by a mix of free settlers and emancipists. Samuel Haslam, who gave his name to the creek through the area, was such a settler. Subdivision began in 1878 with the advent of the railway.
Avalon - Avalon - named after George Edward Thickness-Touchet, 21st Baron Audley, who made the first survey of the Hacking River in 1863-64. He set up a semi-permanent camp here. Baron Audley later became a son-in-law of Surveyor-General Sir Thomas Mitchell.
Brief history: it became the administrative and commercial centre for Royal National Park, a 33,000 acre reserve set aside in 1879 as Australia's first national park.
Avalon - named after an earthly paradise in Celtic mythology, the final resting place of King Arthur. First land grant: 60 acres to John Farrell in 1827.
Brief history: 1,400 acre land grant to Irish Catholic clergyman Father John Joseph Therry in 1833 encompassed the Barrenjoey peninsula and a large section of present day Avalon. His idea of a Catholic settlement at what he called Priest's Flat was a failure. Subdivided in 1921, initially as a holiday retreat but between the wars it attracted many permanent residents.
Badgerys Creek - named after James Badgery, an early land grantee who received 100 acres on the Nepean River in 1803. Badgery was formerly in the employ of Col. Paterson.
Brief history: has remained semi-rural since the early days of settlement and became the controversial site for Sydney's second airport in the 1980s. Much land was acquired but the airport never eventuated.
Bagdally Hill - a locality where the suburb of Claymore now stands. The area was originally known by an Aboriginal word, Bagdally, the name of the hilltop homestead of the Moore family (now part of St Gregory's College). The name was first recorded in the Sydney Gazette in 1811 in a report about a kangaroo hunt at Badge Allen Hill.
Balgowlah / North Balgowlah - said to be the Aboriginal name of North Harbour. The area now known as Balgowlah was known to the Aborigines as Jilling. Brief history: farming commenced in the 1830s in what was then known as Little Manly. Development speeded up with the introduction of a hand punt service at The Spit in 1850. Trams were introduced in 1911.
Balmain - commemorates first land owner, William Balmain , surgeon with the First Fleet who became the colony's principal surgeon. Dr. Balmain sold his property within 15 months of acquiring it for the nominal sum of five shillings to John Gilchrist, Head of Fort William Collage in Calcutta, India.
First granted: 1800 by Governor Hunter
Brief history: In the early years of the colony when the Balmain peninsula was still virgin bush, a popular weekend pastime was to hunt kangaroos in the area where Annandale and Leichhardt are today. The hunters would travel through the bush chasing the kangaroos onto the Balmain peninsular where they would be cornered and killed around Peacock Point. Balmain developed in the 1800s as a working class suburb around shipbuilding facilities established on its shores and nearby Cockatoo Island, the first being a shipyard on Peacock Point.
Balmoral - named after the Queen's private residence of Balmoral in Braemar, Aberdeenshire, purchased in 1848 by her consort, Prince Albert. The reason for giving the name is not known, it is assumed it was given during the subdivision and sale of land.
Brief history: the most significant event in Balmoral's history was the construction of a large amphitheatre in 1924 by the religious group The Theosophical Society to watch what they believed would be the coming of The Second Messiah through Sydney Heads. Many 25-year seat subscriptions were sold but the Messiah never arrived. The land is today occupied by a block of units.
Bangor - the district of Menai was originally named after the Menai Straits between the Isle of Anglesey and Bangor , Wales. Bangor was the name of the property of an early settler, Welshman Owen Jones, who came into the area in 1895. The suburb was renamed Menai in 1910 by the Postmaster General's Department because there was already a locality in Tasmania called Bangor. The name Bangor remained in local use however and has since been adopted for a subdivision within the Menai district.
Banksia - name suggested by David Stead, father of novelist Christina Stead, to honour Sir Joseph Banks.
Brief history: originally part of a large property owned by Simeon Pearce and his brother James, which extended south to Rocky Point and was occupied for years by timber getters. The railway came through the area in 1885 but a station was not opened until lobbying by residents forced the issue in October 1906.
Banksmeadow - named after Sir Joseph Banks, head botanist with HMS Endeavour which visited Botany Bay in April 1770. Thus named because Cook wrote during his visit that it was "as fine a meadow as ever was seen.
Brief history: when Gov. Phillip arrived in 1788 with the First Fleet he headed for this wonderful meadow Cook had waxed lyrical about but on close examination discovered that what had looked like meadow from a distance was in fact rushes in swamp land. Phillip moved the colony to Sydney Cove and the area remained as marshes until the 1830s when it was subdivided for use by veterans of the New South Wales Corps and the village of Banks Meadow came into existence.
Bankstown - the are was thus named by Governor Hunter in honour of Sir Joseph Banks, the botanist who accompanied Captain James Cook on his voyage of discovery along the east coast of Australia in 1770.
Brief history: a small settlement of bark huts grew up almost overnight in 1814 when Gov. Macquarie commissioned the building of the Ashfield to Liverpool Road. The huts were built at a halfway point on the planned route and served as accommodation for the road builders. The settlement which grew up around the workers' huts became known as Bark Hut. In 1855, the Government completed a branch railway line from Redfern to the new settlement and called the terminating station Bankstown, a name which was immediately adopted for the village. Bankstown grew rapidly in the latter half of the 19th century, and was declared a municipality in 1895.
Bantry Bay - said to be named after Bantry Bay in County Cork, Ireland . It was here on 23rd December 1796 that the French suffered a major defeat at the hands of Sir Edward Pellew of the British Navy over their defence of Irish Catholicism. The name was used long before Irishman John Dunbar Nelson began bringing tourists through the area in 1856 but who named it is not known.
Brief history: the bay was used as a shipping point for timber cut from the forests of the north shore around the Frenchs Forest area during the early part of the 19th century. Because of its isolation from the rest of the city, it was chosen as the site for a public explosives magazine in 1907. Many of the complex's disused buildings still stand. It became part of Davidson State Recreation Area in 1974.
Barden Ridge - recalls Alfred Barden whose pioneering family is associated with the Bangor area prior to the 1850s. In 1992 local residents voted to rename part of the suburb of Lucas Heights. In 1996 the Geographical Names Board assigned the name Barden Ridge to the area 3 km south of Menai.
Bardwell Park - named after Thomas Bardwell, an early settler.
Brief history: the area was subdivided in 1881 when 1,600 acres of land was sold. The railway station opened in September 1931.
Barrenjoey Peninsula - Aboriginal, meaning 'Young Kangaroo' first recorded by Gov. Phillip.
Brief history: the bays surrounding the peninsular were a popular and plentiful source of seafood for the Garigal aboriginal clan whose fishing and gathering techniques were observed by Gov. Phillip's men on their first expedition into the area in February 1788. Being some distance from Sydney, colonial settlement was restricted to a number of convict runaways who set up camp in the bush. In the 19th century, smuggling became a common practice on its shore, so much so that a customs house was set up to handle the problem. The lighthouse, opened in 1881, is 114 metres above sea level and the light is visible 24 km out to sea.
Bass Hill - named after George Bass, who explored the nearby Georges River with Matthew Flinders and a boy named Martin in a small boat named Tom Thumb. Brief history: Bass and Flinders were granted 100 acres of land each in the area in appreciation for their exploratory work. Bass' was not used or developed and it reverted to the Crown. Flinders bought more land nearby but did not farm it. During the 19th century the small settlement that grew up here became known as Irish Town because of its large number of Irish settlers. Its present name was adopted in 1924 after being officially known as Upper Bankstown for some years.
Baulkham Hills - said to be named after Baulkham Hills in Scotland from whence came Andrew McDougall, a local pioneer, a native of County Roxburgh in Scotland. He arrived in the colony in 1798 and was granted 150 acres at Baulkham Hills on 12 August 1799; he named the farm 'Roxburgh Place'. He died in 1824 aged 58. The Scottish Baulkham Hills is now known as Buckholm Hills and is in the north of the County of Roxburgh. The name was in use by 1801 when George Suttor established the first orange orchard.
Bayview - describes the view across Pittwater, the name being officially adopted in August 1882.
Brief history: settlement by farmers and orchardists began in the 1820s with timber getting, shingle making and shell digging also being practised. Its development as a suburban area came gradually after World War I.
Beacon Hill - named when the department of lands built a trigonometric beacon here in 1881. The hill was climbed by Gov. Phillip on his first exploratory journey through the area in 1788 and was used as a lookout by the early settlers to view the area and watch for ships passing.
Beaconsfield - named after Benjamin Disraeli, Lord Beaconsfield , a British prime minister.
Brief history: once part of Alexandria, Beaconsfield has always been predominantly an industrial area, from the early days of brick, candle and soap manufacture to the mechanical and engineering industries of today.
Berkshire Park - named after a grant of 320 acres to Richard Rouse (1774-1852) in 1838. By this date, Rouse had many other land holdings in NSW, including grants at North Richmond, Bathurst, Gulgong, Warren and Wellington. In 1828 it was estimated that Rouse owned 10,000 acres, ten years before he acquired the property. Rouse had arrived in Australia in 1801, aged 26 with his wife and two small children. He was born in Oxfordshire, England, adjacent to Berkshire after which Rouse probably named his tract of land.
Beauty Point - name used by subdividers which describes its natural scenic beauty. Originally known as Billy Goat Point.
Brief history: one of the more picturesque locations on Middle Harbour. Its growth over the years has been gradual from the occasional farm to the suburb of today.
Becketts Forest - located at the head of Ashdale Creek just east of the Old Northern Road at Maroota. There is no information available regarding its origins but it may be associated with James Beckett (1793-1876) who married Mary Best, the daughter of George Best, a prosperous farmer at Seven Hills.
Beecroft - recalls the maiden name of the wives of Sir Henry Copeland , the Minister for Lands (two sisters - Hannah and Mary - who he married in succession) who named the estate when it was subdivided in 1886. Copeland Road recalls the Minister; Mary and Hannah Streets were named after his first and second wives, Hull and Malton Roads are named after the places in Yorkshire England where he and his wives were born.
Brief history: part of the Field of Mars Common (see Epping), the area was resumed by an act of Parliament in 1874 to be used for a housing estate. Street names
Belfield - the name first appeared on their records in 1930 when the Belfield branch of the ALP wrote asking that the Department establish a post office at North Belmore. Although several applications were made over the years, it was not until 1936 that the postal inspector reported in favour of a non-official post office. His report read: " ... There is a business centre here consisting of sixteen shops, one garage and one Hotel. It is a prosperous business section. This part of the locality is approximately midway between Belmore and Enfield. It is known as Belfield"..... - the name derived from its position between the two suburbs mentioned, Belmore and Enfield.
Belimbla Park - Aboriginal name for a particular type of eucalyptus, native to the Belimbla Creek area near Tumut. In the 1940s an area between The Oaks and Oakdale was selected for a plantation of that particular type of eucalypt.
Bella Vista - Elizabeth Macarthur farmed sheep on her 'Seven Hills Farm'. The Pearce family later acquired part of this property, built the homestead and named their farm "Bella Vista" because the high position offered fine views in all directions. While the acreage has been substantially reduced for housing development, the homestead and many outbuildings still remain and are now owned by Baulkham Hills Shire Council.
Bellevue Hill - the name given to the suburb was taken from that given to the view point later becoming Bellevue Park. It was named Belle Vue by Governor Macquarie replacing Vinegar Hill which he considered vulgar. The name literally means the 'beautiful view'.
Belmore - named after New South Wales Governor Sir Somersett Richard Lowry-Corry, Earl of Belmore . During construction of the Marrickville to Burwood Railway Line, in the early 1890's, there was much discussion about what to call the terminus station. The most popular suggestion was St George. The name, which today is readily identified with the Hurstville, Rockdale and Kogarah area, used to refer to an area that also included much of Canterbury. In fact the first Hotel in the Belmore district was called the St George Hotel (it still stands on the corner of Canterbury and Kingsgrove Roads). Councils on the Illawarra Railway Line objected, feeling the name was more appropriate for them. Canterbury Council was adamant the station be called St George and it took the, then, member for Canterbury, Joseph Carruthers to change their mind. He convinced the people of Canterbury to name the Burwood Road Terminus, Belmore, and went on to occupy many senior ministries before becoming Premier of NSW in 1904, a position he held until he retired in 1907.
Belrose - named after two flowers, the Christmas bell and the native rose.
Brief history: the area remained virgin bush until after the second world war when urban development began.
Berala - taken from the Aboriginal name for musk-duck 'bareela'.
Brief history: the area's first name - Liberty Plains - reflects the fact that its first white occupants were free settlers or NSW Corps retirees rather than convicts who were known as Liberty men and women. Farms did not give way to urban development until after 1912 when the railway station was opened. The area surrounding the station was swampy marshland where wildlife abounded, in particularly native musk ducks, and it was for this reason that the name was chosen.
Berowra - said to be Aboriginal for 'place of many winds'. The parish was originally named Berowra, and the town established on Peat's Ferry Road took its name from that. The road from the railway station to Berowra Waters was completed in 1902, which was when Jack Smith began to operate a ferry. Before that Berowra was only known as Dusthole Bay. Berowra is believed to be derived from 'Perrara' to which the earliest known reference occurs in the Sydney Gazette. "Last week 8 very fine pheasants were shot at Perrara ... south branch of the River Hawkesbury ... by one of our most experienced foresters." The pheasants were in fact lyrebirds.
Berowra Waters - that part of Berowra Creek between Calabash Bay and the ferry. The name probably dates from around 1902 when the road was constructed from Berowra Station to the ferry, thus making the waterway accessible to visitors from Sydney.
Berrilee - located on Bay Road, North Colah and it lays beyond Arcadia, on the road to Berowra Waters. The Aborigines here used to refer to the sows and pigs of the white settlers as 'birra birra', and from this the name of the settlement, Berrilee, grew. The Bay Road corridor follows Berrilee Ridge down from Arcadia Park passing through the settlement of Berrilee above Berowra Waters. By 1905, Berrilee had a Progress Association, though it had been the smallest and most remote of all the settlements in the Parish of North Colah. There have been numerous variations in spelling including Berrilee and later Berrilee. In the early 1900s Berrilee was known as Calabash, which means a gourd, or the dried, hollow shell of the calabash (tree), used as a vessel.
Beverly Hills - Captain John Connell and Dr. Robert Townson were the first grantees of the area. In 1830, Dr. Townson's grant came into the hands of John Connell - the area being known as Connell's Bush. Dumbleton (now Beverly Hills) seems to have been included in this grant. It's name was taken from Dumbleton Farm, which according to an old account in The Echo was still standing in the 1890's. With the advent of the East Hills Railway Line in 1931, considerable land development occurred, followed by a pattern of closer settlement, homes, shopping centres and factories. Dumbleton was renamed Beverly Hills in 1940 after the suburb of Los Angeles .
Bexley / Bexley North - named by James Chandler after Bexley Heath in England. Chandler was an English free settler who took up land here in 1822 which extended to the shores of Botany Bay. Subdivision into smaller farms began when a timber getters road leading to Gannon's Forest (Hurstville) was built through the property. Suburban development began with the coming of the railway to Hurstville in 1884. By 1909, Bexley was linked to Arncliffe station by a steam tram.
Bickley Vale - the name is taken from the name of an existing property within this locality.
Bidwill - named in honour of noted botanist John Carne Bidwill, (1815-53), who worked on the Sydney Botanic Gardens. The suburb was designed in the 1970's and was modelled on a city in New Jersey. Due to a typographical error in the Lands Dept., Bidwill is the correct spelling for the postal address however the geographical area is gazetted as Bidwell.
Bilgola - possibly after the Aboriginal name Belgoula, reputed to mean 'a pretty beach with steep slopes in the background studded with cabbage palms', but more than likely it was either the name of this location or the Aboriginal word for the cabbage palm.
Brief history: For many years, the village of cottages in the area was known as Dalley Beach, because W.B. Dalley, the first Australian Privy Councillor, had a weekend home here. Before World War I, attempts were made by Rev. J.J. Therry to mine coal commercially at Bilgola Head, but they failed due to lack of interest by Sydney businessmen.
Birchgrove - named after Birch Grove House, built by settler John Birch in 1812. Birch was paymaster of the 73rd regiment.
Early history: in early colonial days when Birchgrove was granted to NSW Corps private George Whitfield, it was virgin bush and the Aborigines used to chase kangaroos into the area and catch them; being a peninsula they had no way of escape. By the mid 19th century ship builders had moved onto Long Nose Point and around the turn of the century a coal mine began operating on a site next door to Birchgrove School.
Birniemere - Now part of Kurnell, it was originally 'Alpha Farm' of Captain James Birnie, who was granted 700 acres here in 1815. This was the first farm in what later became Sutherland Shire, 'alpha' being Greek for 'first'. Birniemere recalls its original farmer.
Birrong - An Aboriginal name reputed to mean 'star'. The name recalls Boorong, the 12 year old daughter of Maugoran, a Burramattagal elder, who was brought to Sydney in 1789 from the Birrong area suffering from smallpox which had orphaned her. She was cared for by Surgeon General John White and Chaplain Richard Johnson and was adopted by Johnson and his wife Mary after she recovered. Boorong's three brothers - Ballooderry (Leatherjacket), Yerinibe and Bidgee Bidgee (River Flat), were later appointed 'chief' of Parramatta by Governor Lachlan Macquarie. Birrong is the only place in the Sydney region to be named after a female Aborigine.
Early history: it was part of a large tract of land in the area granted to free settlers, one of whom was Joseph Hyde Potts, after whom Potts Point was named. Potts was a foundation employee of the Bank of NSW which began trading in 1717. His 625 acre grant became known as Potts Hill, the highest point of which was later used by the Water Board as a location for two large water storage tanks. The name Birrong was officially adopted in 1927 when subdivision and residential development first took place.
Blackett - named in honour of George Forster Blackett. He was Superintendent of the government cattle station at Rooty Hill During Governor Macquarie's era. Blackett was the first to acquire land in the Orange district (and reputedly the first west of the Macquarie River) in 1827. Blackett did not live on his grant, later to be known as Rosedale. The streets of Blackett are named after Australian literary personalities, including Miles Franklin, Ion Idriess, D'Arcy Niland, Christopher Brennan, Kenneth Slessor and Rolf Bolderwood.
Blacktown - named in recognition of Governor Lachlan Macquarie's land grants to aborigines. The area incorporating these settlements was referred to as Black's Town. In 1819, Colebee and Nurragingy, two Aborigines who helped soldiers travel overland in the early years of the colony, were the first to be rewarded with a parcel of 30 acres for their undertakings. Blacktown's first train station was built in 1860, just 5 years after Parramatta. Rooty Hill station was built in 1861, St Marys in 1862, and Mt. Druitt in 1881.
Blair Athol - named after one of three historic homes here - Blair Athol, Stone Cottage and The Kraal. Blair Athol belonged to emigrant Scot, John Kidd, who built the fine old home on the hill about 1879, naming it after Blair Castle in Scotland. Several times as an MLA between 1880 and 1904, Kidd was Campbelltown's Member of Parliament as well as being a town baker, storekeeper and dairy farmer, Kidd was a high profile member of the Presbyterian congregation.
Brief history: Blair Athol is Campbelltown's newest suburb, coming into existence during the 1990s. In 1945, Blair Athol and its surround, then a farming property, was sold to the electrical engineering firm Crompton Parkinson. And on this land, close to the railway, it built the first major factory at Campbelltown in 1957. By the 1990s, much of the industrial land of the area had been vacated and in June 1992 the land was re-zoned as residential.
Blairmount - named after a homestead that was built in the late Victorian era. The building still exists, standing on protected scenic land below St Gregory's college, with sweeping views of Campbelltown. Owners earlier this century were Clive and Victor Ducat, the latter serving as a local alderman.
Brief history: the Ducats were grandsons of a Scottish migrant, William Ducat. Their homestead was originally called Belmont. Leslie Rouse acquired it in 1923. After Rouse's death in 1928, Frank Young, manager of the Commonwealth Wool Company, purchased the property, which at the time totalled 70 ha. By now, it was known as Blairmount. Blair is a Scottish word meaning 'cleared space'. Young increased the size of his holding by purchasing adjoining land and specialised in breeding prize-winning Clydesdale horses until his death in 1951. These heavy draught horse, originally bred near the River Clyde in Scotland, are today honoured by the modern suburb's main road - Clydesdale Drive. Blairmount's street names recall many great horse breeds.
Blakehurst - named after William Blake, a road assessor who was appointed as the local postmaster in 1863.
Early history: part of Robert Townson's extensive grant in the St George area of 1808. Its move away from rural to residential began with the opening of a punt service at Tom Ugly's Point in 1864 and Kogarah Road (Princes Hwy) becoming the main road between Sydney and the Illawarra.
Blaxland - honours John Blaxland, pioneer settler and businessman, and one of the three explorers to first find a way across the Blue Mountains in 1815.
Blues Point - Recalls Billy Blue, a Jamaican chocolate maker who was transported to NSW in 1807 for stealing a bag of sugar. After emancipation, he was granted 80 acres on Billy Blue's Point (then known as Murdering Point), from which he operated a ferry service to Millers Point. At its peak, his ferry business operated 11 boats and employed Billy, his son and three convicts. A colourful, eccentric character, he was appointed harbour watchman and constable by Gov. Macquarie and subsequently dressed in outlandish military uniforms, which earned him the nickname of Commodore of the Fleet. He died age 82.
Bobbin Head - derived from a large rock which stood at the end of the headland, and as tidal waters rose and fell about it, it appeared to bear a likeness to a head and shoulders bobbing in the creek, hence the 'bobbing head', which was later changed to Bobbin Head. Bobbin Head, on Cowan Creek, is part of Ku-Ring-Gai National Park, proclaimed in 1894. It is still a popular place for picnics, which are not so difficult to arrange as in 1897, when it was necessary to send a telegram, to hire a horse drawn vehicle to be in attendance at Wahroonga to meet the train. The name may also have been named after the farm of Mr Hutchinson who had a farm in the area.
Bondi / North Bondi - from the Aboriginal word, Bundi, which described the sound of waves breaking on the beach. The name was first used by the pioneer surveyor James Meehan, who referred to it as Bundi Bay.
Brief history - the land beyond the coastal sand dunes which fringed Bondi Bay was first cultivated for farming in the 1800s. Subdivision first took place in the 1850s but Bondi was never as popular as Manly and Coogee until the 1920s, when it became Sydney's most popular beachside holiday destination. Bondi was serviced by horse buses from the 1850s. Steam trams arrived in the 1860s and were replaced by the famous 'O' class electric trams in the 1880s. They were fast but erratic, and inspired the saying "shooting through like a Bondi tram".
Bondi Junction - takes its name from nearby Bondi, and that it became the hub of the eastern suburbs transport system and a junction for the Edgecliff, Bondi, Waverley and Coogee tram services.
Brief history - Crown land first went on sale in 1838, with suburban blocks on Oxford Street selling for £58 ($116.00). At the time it was considered quite expensive, since the roads were unmade and the area was not serviced by public transport. The latter arrived in the form of horse drawn buses in the 1850s. Steam trams arrived in 1882 but these were replaced by their electric powered counterparts eight years later.
Bonnet Bay - its name recalls a cave in the area known as 'The Bonnet' (as it is shaped like an old woman's bonnet). The name was adopted in 1979. It was originally proposed to name the area Kirkby.
Bonnyrigg / Bonnyrigg Heights - named by early Scottish settlers after the Scottish village of that name near Falkirk. Bonnyrigg was part of the original Orphan Schools grant in 1803. The first buildings were erected in 1806 and the locality was subdivided into farms in the late 1820's.
Boronia Park - named after the Australian native Boronia , a sweetly scented shrub. A leafy suburb on the Lane Cove River, the name was selected to reflect the extensive native flora of the area.
Bossley Park - named after John Brown Bossley. He and his wife, Louisa, settled here in the 1850s, establishing Edenson Park estate. This estate was subdivided and sold in the 1890s, attracting many families to its wide open spaces.
Botany / Port Botany - named after nearby Botany Bay, which was named by Capt. James Cook during his exploration of the East coast of Australia in 1770. Brief history - the first resident was Simon Lord who built his house on ti-tree piles because the ground was marshy. In the early 1800s, the swampy land in the Botany district was found to be very fertile, and with its unlimited supply of water, was perfect for market gardening. Remnants of the market garden activity in the area, which extended around the whole top end of Botany Bay from Botany to Kogarah, still survive. Market gardening, together with fishing, prawning and oyster farming on the nearby Georges River, brought many people to the area which had been originally rejected by Gov. Phillip as unsuitable for settlement.
The opening of Lord's water mill and the Sir Joseph Banks Hotel in 1845 was the turning point in Botany becoming a recreational playground for the people of Sydney. This fostered the development of the town that grew up around it, and led to Sydney's first zoo being established here in 1855. In the 1880s, West Botany became Rockdale and Botany residents rejected moves to call their municipality Cooksdale, after Captain Cook.
Box Hill - This area takes its name from either a stand of box trees that were once in the area or the fact that in the nineteenth century there were hunting boxes built on the tops of hills in this area. City people used to come to their country hunting boxes for a few days hunting and, perched on a hill, could aim at targets quite easily. One building has survived: "The Hunting Lodge, Box Hill" thought to have been built by S.H. Terry on Governor Bligh's "Copenhagen Farm".
Bow Bowing - thus named in 1975 after the creek which flows beside it. The exact origin of the Bow Bowing name is obscure but according to an early land grant located near the creek's headwaters near Glen Alpine, it was originally spelt as Boro Borang but was corrupted over the years firstly to Boro Bowing, and then Bow Bowing. If that is the case, then the name would be of Aboriginal origin.
Brief history: the earliest landholders in the area were Joseph Inch, D. Keighran and John Pendergast. In June 1866 a small church classroom built by local farmers was opened. It was known as Saggart Field School because the Saggart family lived on a hill overlooking the area. The little wooden hut was the first public school in Campbelltown. By May 1884, the school had changed its name to Minto Public School, as the Saggart family had moved away from the district. In 1954 it was relocated to the more populated eastern side of the railway line, where it still stands on the corner of Redfern and Pembroke Roads. In 1975 when this suburb was still on the drawing board, the name Saggart Field was considered to honour the community of that name that had lived on the site in the mid-19th Century. As the housing development was being marketed as Bow Bowing Park, its developer Long Homes requested streets be named after famous parks around the world. The local council agreed to a 'park' theme, but rejected the international idea. Instead, a list of Australian parks was compiled and used as street names.
Bradbury - named after William Bradbury. He had a two storey brick house on his farm in the area that today bears his name. During a visit by Gov. Macquarie, he asked the governor for suggestions about a suitable name for the property and Macquarie came up with the very original Bradbury Park.
Brief history: when Bradbury died at the age of 67 in 1836, his large estate of 300 acres passed on to other owners until a section of it was subdivided into small farm blocks and town allotments in October 1844. The first suburban development came in the mid-1950s under the name of the St Elmo Estates. William Bradbury's 134-year-old home was on land within the estates and it was demolished to make way for the new development. Other estates followed - Macquarie Heights and Macquarie Views Estate (1960), its street names honouring early Australian naturalists; Sherwood Hills (1965), the first Sydney suburb to feature underground electricity, the elimination of front and paling fences and a ban on any red tiled roofs. The development company which built the suburb raised the ire of the local council and residents alike in the 1960s when Sherwood Hills estate was suddenly renamed Bradbury in 1969, causing thousands of people to have to change their address; Bradbury Park (1967) with street names of Aboriginal origin. Development of Bradbury continued well into the 1970s.
Bradfield - named after Dr. John J.C. Bradfield, chief engineer for construction of the Sydney Harbour Bridge.
Brief history: prior to the arrival of suburbia, Bradfield was populated by timber getters and orchardists. Bradfield Park was an RAAF camp during World War II, after which it became a reception centre for migrants from Europe.
Breakfast Point - so named as Captain John Hunter stopped here for breakfast on 5th February 1788 while on an exploratory survey of the harbour. Ten days later when Governor Phillip came to inspect, the party stopped at the same place, again for breakfast. When AGL's Mortlake plant was in full operation it used nearly 460,000 tonnes of coal per year. This was brought from Hexham on the Hunter River by colliers which, like those steaming from Newcastle, were also known as the 'Sixty Milers'. However, the distance travelled to Sydney from Hexham was closer to 87 nautical miles (160 km). Aboriginal name: Booridiow-o-gule.
Brighton-Le-Sands - named after the famous English seaside resort at Brighton. The name was originally New Brighton, given by landowner and businessman Thomas Saywell who dreamed of creating a seaside resort similar to Brighton in England, which catered for the working class. Saywell built a hotel, swimming and picnic facilities and tramway from Kogarah station, which put the place on the map. In 1893, it all unravelled when Saywell's hotel lost its liquor license. Not to be phased, he turned the hotel into Scots College. Eventually, it became clear that schools and holiday makers don't mix and the college was moved to its present location at Bellevue Hill. Brighton became Brighton-Le-Sands and turned into a popular beachside suburb.
Bringelly - The present township of Bringelly is situated on the land granted to William Hutchinson in 1818. Hutchinson was originally transported to the colony for seven years for stealing goods worth forty pounds. He was convicted of theft in Sydney and sent to Norfolk Island where he became Superintendent of Convicts! He was in charge of the evacuation of the island when the settlement was abandoned in 1814. Later in 1814 he was appointed Principal Superintendent of Convicts and Public Works in Sydney. Hutchinson was considered the colony's first banker as he used to mind people's money in a large wooden chest. In 1817 he was appointed as one of the directors of the new Bank of New South Wales. Another early settler was Robert Lowe. He was granted 1000 acres in the Parish of Bringelly and later added another 500 acres to this. He named his property Birling after his wife's birthplace in England. It is not known whether the present name is a corruption of 'Birling' such as 'Birling Gully' or whether it has another origin, perhaps Aboriginal.
Bronte - named after Robert Lowe's home, Bronte House, which in turn was named in honour of Lord Nelson, Duke of Bronte . Lord Nelson was created Duke of Bronte by the King of Naples in 1799. Lowe, a distant relative of Gov. Gipps, bought a strip of beach frontage here in the 1830s and built Bronte House. Lowe became actively involved in politics, and became Viscount Sherbrooke. Nelson Bay, Nelson Avenue, Trafalgar Street, Collingwood Street, Hardy Street (now Tipper Ave) and Pembroke Street also honour the British naval hero.
Brooklyn - the original name for the area of Brooklyn was Flat Rock. It is commonly thought it was changed to Brooklyn because that suburb of New York was the home of the Hawkesbury River Bridge builders, who also built the famous Brooklyn Bridge across the East River to Manhattan Island. The name Brooklyn was given to the station in 1888, and although it was subsequently changed to Hawkesbury River Station, Brooklyn has remained as the name of the locality. This explanation as to the adoption of the name appears to be inaccurate as Peter and William Fagan bought 100 acres here in 1881 and a plan of 29th January 1884 associated with the purchase was for the development of a 'town of Brooklyn'. Subdivisions of some of the Fagan property were advertised as early as 19th September 1883 in the Sydney Morning Herald under the name Brooklyn Estate. As tenders for the bridge building were not called till 18th September 1884, it seems certain the name predates any association with the Union Bridge Co. Street names
Brookvale - named derived from the names of two houses called Greendale and Brooklands, the latter of which was near three brooks. Greendale's owner was William Frederick Parker who carved his farm out of the heavy bushland of the valley with the help of convict labour. Brooklands House was built by Parker's son in 1877 on the site of Warringah Mall Shopping Centre. A small village named Greendale grew near the house but its name was changed to Brookvale as there was already a Greendale in Sydney, near Bringelly. Steam trams arrived in Brookvale in 1910 at a time the area was developing into a residential area.
Brownlow Hill - the name of an early pioneer's homestead. Brownlow Hill Loop Road is near the Sydney University Farms Complex.
Brush Farm - the name of the property of pioneer settler Gregory Blaxland. Brush Farm House stands on almost 1 hectare at the corner of Lawson Street and Marsden Road, Eastwood, and is in need of restoration. It was built in 1820 by Gregory Blaxland, following his purchase of the Brush Farm Estate in 1807. In the 19th century, Eastwood was known as East Brush.
Bucketty - Aboriginal name meaning "mountain springs".
Bundeena - Aboriginal meaning: 'noise like thunder', presumably after the sound of surf on the ocean beach nearby. Bundeena began life as a fishing village and has managed to retain its rural charm thanks to its isolated position on the northern boundary of Royal National Park.
Burraneer - originally Burraneer Bay, either an Aboriginal word meaning 'point of the bay' or the Aboriginal name for the point. First recorded in 1827 by Surveyor Dixon. Early landowners included Andrew and Mary Webster, Thomas Holt and Patrick Dolan. Major development of the area began taking place after World War I.
Burwood / Burwood Heights - probably after Burwood in Cornwall, England. The name was first used by Capt. Thomas Rowley of NSW Corps in 1799 when he named his 260 acre grant Burwood Farm.
Brief history: the land passed through a succession of owners until subdivision began in 1834, first into farmlets for use by dairy farmers, then into town lots. Burwood grew from being a small village after the Parramatta to Sydney railway was opened in 1855. Local history
Busby - named after James Busby, son of engineer John Busby. Busby was manager of the boys orphan school at Bulls Head, north of present day Busby. Orphan School Creek commemorates this institution. Busby was a viticulturist and worked with the boys of the orphanage to grow some of the first grapes in the area in the 1820s. Busby's street names recall cattle breeds, which reflects the area's use in cattle farming prior to the development of the suburb as a housing commission residential area in 1964.
Cabarita - from an Aboriginal word meaning 'by the water'.
Granted to NSW Corps private, David Anderson, in 1795, Caberita Point as it was known became a regular stopping place for ferries plying the Parramatta River. In the 1880s a pleasure and picnic grounds known as Correy's Gardens flourished.
Cabramatta / Cabramatta West - the name is of Aboriginal origin - 'cabra' (an edible freshwater grub) and 'matta' (place of). A suggestion has also been made that it means 'place at the headwaters' though it is more likely that it is the Aboriginal name for the place at the headwaters (of Cabramatta Creek, which Cabramatta is), which was called Cabramatta, meaning " place where cabra (edible freshwater grub) are found.
Brief history: its first white settlers were Irish political prisoners who established a camp here. In 1803 a huge tract of land was given to Rev. Samuel Marsden and others to establish an orphanage. The area developed as a prosperous farming community until the arrival of the railway in the 1880s when subdivision began.
Cambridge Gardens / Cambridge Park - the name of the property here that was owned by Phillip Parker King and named after a family friend, the Duke of Cambridge. In the early 1880s, King's property was subdivided and sold for development as orchards and vineyards.
Camden / Camden South - Camden was founded in an area known as The Cowpastures in 1840 on land formerly owned by John Macarthur and named in honour of Lord Camden who, in 1805, sanctioned the grant of 5000 acres to Macarthur for the raising of the first Merino sheep in Australia.
Brief history: in 1789, the settlement at Sydney Cove's four cows and two bulls escaped into the bush and were lost. The herd had grown to several dozen in number when it was rediscovered on the banks of the Nepean River in 1795. Governor Hunter named the area where they were found The Cowpastures and opened up the area for farming.
In addition to sheep, John Macarthur began Australia's dairy industry in Camden in 1826. Two of his sons took over the estate after his death and introduced viticulture, fruit-growing and wheat during the 1840's. Until rust ruined the infant wheat industry in 1860, Camden had a thriving flour milling industry. Benkennie was the original name of Macarthur's Camden Estate. It is said to be either the name of a local aboriginal tribe or an aboriginal word meaning `dry land'. Alternatively Bekennie or Belgenny was said to have been the name of a pond on the original grant.
Camellia - named after a nearby garden, the Camellia Grove Nursery of one Silas Sheather. The latter leased the land from Elizabeth Macarthur, it being part of the Macarthur's Elizabeth Farm. It was originally called Subiaco but this was changed as it led to confusion with the vineyard of that name on the opposite bank of the Parramatta River. The railway was built through the area in 1885 as a private operation.
Cammeray - named after the original Aboriginal inhabitants of this part of the Lower North Shore, the Cammeraygal, reputed to be a group of fierce fighters. A number of small dairy farms operated here until the 1880s when it became one of the first parts of the Lower North Shore to be developed as a residential area.
Campbelltown - the name is derived from Campbell Fields, the name of the property of William Redfern, given in honour of Governor Macquarie's wife, Campbell being her maiden name. Brief history: when Gov. Macquarie made his first visit to the area in November 1810, he was so impressed with the small farming community here he formed a new district on the land between Bunbury Curran Creek and the Georges River and called it Airds. Among the settlers were William Redfern, Henry Kable, James Underwood and James Meehan. By the 1820s the district had so grown he named the village which had formed Campbelltown, recalling both his wife and the name of Redfern's farm. Campbelltown street names
Camperdown - named by Governor Bligh after a naval battle off the Dutch coast near Camperdown (below), the land being granted to him in August 1806. Brief history: Bligh's daughter and son-in-law Maurice O'Connell took over Bligh's property on his departure to England where an unsuccessful model farm was commenced on land next to Grose Farm, a grant made to Lieut. Gov. Francis Grose in 1792. It was later acquired by the government and the Sydney University built on it. In 1841 O'Connells estate was divided into O'Connell Town on Cook's River Road (Princes Highway) and Camperdown on Parramatta Road. A racecourse operated near O'Connell Town on the ground now occupied by Prince Alfred Hospital. In 1868, Prince Alfred visited Australia and survived an assassination attempt on Clontarf Beach. To commemorate his good fortune the people of Sydney decided to build a permanent memorial to him in the form of a hospital on the university paddocks, an area of land that had been earmarked for use as a Wesleyan College. The hospital was opened in 1882 and named in honour of Prince Alfred.
Campsie - named after Campsie in Stirlingshire, Scotland.
In 1851, John Redman's first grant in the area, "John Farm" was bought by the Scott Brothers, who renamed it "Campsie Farm". When the land boom came in the 1880s, the farm was purchased and subdivided by the Anglo-Australian Investment, Finance and Land Company Ltd., under the name "Campsie Park Estate". It is believed to be named after the district of Campsie in Scotland, where there is also a range of hills known as the Campsie Fells.
Canada Bay: a number of French-Canadians participated in a rebellion against the British, in the Canadian Provinces of Ontario and Quebec in 1837. The rebellion was quashed by Sir George Arthur, a former Governor of Van Diemen's Land. The British took many prisoners, of which 29 were executed and 149 sentenced to transportation for life to Australia. Those of British descent were sent to Van Diemen's Land and the French-Canadians sent to Sydney. They arrived on the 25th of February 1840. Generally these 'convicts' were treated as prisoners-of-war and were allowed comparative freedom while they were detained at the Long Bottom Stockade. In 1842, these Canadian convicts were given tickets-of-leave and by 1844 most had received a free pardon. Of the 58 French-Canadians that were sent to Sydney, two died, one married a settler from Dapto on the South Coast and 55 returned to Canada.
Canley Heights / Canley Vale - name originates from Canley Grange, the name of a property occupied by Sir Henry Parkes' which he named after his birthplace, Canley Moat House, Stoneleigh, Warwickshire. His was the first house in the district. Canley Vale came into being in January 1900 and from that time slowly grew to the suburb it is today.
Canoelands - the origin of the name Canoelands is difficult to establish, though it is believed it is because this area was favoured by the Aboriginal people for obtaining bark suitable for building canoes.
Canterbury - originally Reverend Richard Johnson's Canterbury Vale, after Canterbury in England . Rev. Johnson was the first grantee of the land of Canterbury, receiving 100 acres on May 28 1793, although there is evidence he was occupying the property before this time. This property was approximately one mile from the Cooks River and offered the essential requisite of fresh water by way of ponds. He named the property "Canterbury Vale" and by 1793-94 he had cultivated forty acres; sown fifteen acres of wheat; produced a first crop of about six hundred bushels of Indian Corn and held a stock of fourteen sheep, eleven goats, a mare, some hogs and fowls. In fact, during 1793, Watkin Tench acknowledged Johnson's efforts by describing him as 'the best farmer in the colony'.
Robert Campbell in May 1803, brought the land that had by this time passed onto William Cox. Campbell bought the land from the bankrupt Cox for 525 pounds. By 1834 Robert Campbells Estate comprised 1242 acres, which comprises the current Canterbury and Hurlstone Park area. Robert Campbell's daughter Sarah Jeffrey's subdivided the land in 1865 "into allotments each containing several acres." Aboriginal street names
Caravan Head - thought to have been named after 'Caravan Rock', which was shaped like a covered wagon or caravan situated on private property on the point of Caravan Head.
Caringbah - from an Aboriginal word for the Pademelon Wallaby. Caringbah was originally called Highfield but the name was changed with the opening of the Post Office in 1912. The origin of the original name is not known. The area began to be developed from the 1880s, but until World war II remained largely small farms and orchards. A steam tram service between Cronulla and Sutherland brought public transport to Caringbah in 1911. Its route is followed by today's Cronulla railway branch line.
arlingford - Cthe area was originally known as Mobbs Hill after William Mobbs, an early settler. Carlingford probably received its name to honour Lord Carlingford who was Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies from 1857 to 1860. His title is associated with the town of Carlingford in Ireland. The name was suggested by Frederick Cox who heard one of his employees describe the similarities between Mobbs Hill and the scenery of Carlingford in Ireland. Residents voted for the name in 1886. Street names
Carlton - named after a suburb of Nottingham in England meaning "a village of free men".
Brief history: up until the arrival of the railway in 1884, Carlton was a patchwork of farms on land cleared of forest some decades earlier. The train did not stop at Carlton and in order to make it happen, the developers offered free blocks of land here to everyone who donated £400 towards the cost of building a platform and station buildings. It was this "generous offer" of free land that prompted the use of the name Carlton. The settlement got its station in 1889. By the turn of the century it had developed into a desirable residential area.
Carramar - from an Aboriginal word meaning 'shade of trees'.
Its name indicates the area was once covered in forest. Land here was to be leased for farming in August 1803 though it appears it remained in the hands of a single owner until its subdivision into smaller farms in 1885. When the railway between Sydney to Campbelltown was built in 1856, the area was already known as Carramar. Its station, however, was first called South Fairfield and it wasn't until 1926 that its present name was officially adopted. In that same year the Villawood Post Office had its name changed to Carramar as it fell within the boundary of the newly created suburb,
Carss Park - named after William Carss, a cabinetmaker, whose 1860s stone cottage on Kogarah Bay still stands. Carss came out from Britain under the sponsorship of Presbyterian minister Rev. Dr. John Dunmore Lang, working his passage to the colony as a carpenter. He built some of the furniture and fittings in Government House. Known as Carss Bush, the property was pledged to the Sailors Home in Sydney upon his death. When the surrounding area was subdivided and sold, a section of Carss Bush was preserved in its natural state as a public park.
Cartwright - named after the Reverend Robert Cartwright (1771-1856) of St Luke's, Liverpool. Rev. Cartwright had served the Hawkesbury River community some years before accepting Rev. Samuel Marsden's invitation to be the master of the Male Orphan School in 1825. Rev. Cartwright also operated a small farm where Cartwright is today. Cartwright was one of the new suburbs in the Green Valley development scheme of the 1960s which saw large tracts of land to the west of Liverpool subdivided for development by the housing commission.
Castle Cove - believed to be named after Henry Willis' gothic style house, Innisfallen Castle. Willis was a member of parliament and speaker in the House of Representatives around the turn of the 20th century.
Castle Hill - The first known use of the name Castle Hill occurred in a despatch dated 1st March, 1802: "A great progress has been made in the clearing of land at Castle Hill, where I hope to sow two hundred acres on the public account this year." The origin of the name is not known. It once referred to the whole North West district covering Seven Hills, Castle Hill, Rouse Hill etc. Castle Hill may have been named because of the fine views from the hills in the district. Governor Phillip first saw the area on one of his exploratory trips in 1791. Governor King began a government farm there on July 8 1801, referring to it as Castle Hill on March 1 1802. The farm of 34,539 acres ranged from West Pennant Hills to Maroota, although only a small portion was cultivated. Castle Hill Heritage Park in Banks Road remains as a remnant of it. The first free settler in Castle Hill was Frenchman, Baron Verincourt de Clambe, who received a grant of 200 acres in 1802. It has been suggested that de Clambe's house " The Hermitage" was commonly called 'The Castle' by locals, because of the Baron's noble status possibly named because of the fine views from the hilly areas of the district. Street names
Castlecrag - named by Walter Burley Griffin because of a rock crag known as Edinburgh Castle.
Brief history: in the 1920s, architect Walter Burley Griffin, who had won a competition to design Australia's national capital, moved with his wife Marion to Australia. The pair bought on Middle Harbour cheaply and developed a unique suburb in which the houses were intended to blend into the natural habitat. The concept was too radical for the average man in the street and it wasn't until the Griffins moved to India and the tight restriction they placed on builders was lifted that Castlecrag grew into the beautiful, leafy suburb it is today.
Castlereagh / Upper Castlereagh - honours Lord Castlereagh (1769-1822), the Irish peer responsible for the Act of Union in 1803 between Ireland and England. The present settlement lies approximately 5 kilometres from the site that was originally chosen by Gov. Lachlan Macquarie in 1810, when he founded five towns - the other four being Windsor, Richmond, Wilberforce and Pitt Town - in order to provide accommodation and storage space above flood level for settlers on the Nepean and Hawkesbury Rivers. In 1811 the surveyor James Meehan marked out the streets and a town square, in which a board bearing the name "Castlereagh" was erected. Castlereagh did not develop, however, mainly due to the fact that the building of the Great Western Road from Parramatta to Emu Ford in 1815 restructured the road system. With the construction of the Great Western Road, Penrith was to become the focal point of the district. Thus, although Castlereagh had been a planned town, the geographical position of Penrith in relation to the crossing of the Blue Mountains secured this change of roles.
Casula - named by land grantee Richard Guise after the place where he had lived in England. Another grantee was Ebenezer Bunker, a leading businessman in the young colony whose first contact with it was as master of the William and Anne, carrying 188 convicts of the Third Fleet. Bunker saw the colony's potential and returned, establishing numerous businesses including a successful whaling operation.
The suburb of Casula's main claim to fame occurred during World War II when a company of 5,000 soldiers stationed here rioted after having their training conditions changed. The soldiers embarked on a drunken brawl which took them into the Sydney city centre, damaging shops, homes and private property on the way. After a night of destroying shops in the city centre, they sobered up the next morning and all but 15 gave themselves up.
Catherine Field - the origin of the name is uncertain. A Catherine Inglis (nee Ross) sailed for the Colony of NSW in 1829 from Scotland with her husband, Thomas. Governor Bourke granted them land near Camden in 1831 which they named Craigend. A good portion of this original grant is still owned and operated by the Inglis family. Their family business, Wm. Inglis & Sons, became well known as experts in the horse industry. Descendants of Inglis still conduct business for the firm of Wm. Inglis & Sons at their premises in Edward Street, Camden, next to the saleyard. Catherine Inglis died in May 1874, age 72, and was buried in the Glenmore Uniting Church graveyard.
Cattai - The name 'Cattai' is derived from an Aboriginal word of unknown meaning. It was applied to Caddie Park, a homestead on Cattai Farm, owned by the First Fleet Assistant Surgeon Thomas Arndell. The homestead is now part of Cattai National Park. The name has been variously spelled as Caddie, Catta, and Catye. John Goldsmith an early settler in the area wrote that he had established a farm at 'Cat Eye' by 1805.
Cawdor - named after Cawdor in Nairn, Scotland, the Highland Estate of the Thanes of Cawdor Castle. The village of Cawdor was the earliest and most important centre of settlement on the Cowpastures until Camden was established. A hut was built at Cawdor for the herdsman guarding the cattle in 1804 and a house for the superintendent went up in 1819. When the public offices were transferred to Camden in 1841 the settlement at Cawdor was closed.
Cecil Hills / Cecil Park - named after the 2,000 acre property of John Wylde which he named Cecil Hills after his home Cecil Lodge at Chestnut, Hertfordshire, England. Brief history: the main properties comprising the present Cecil Hills suburb were granted to John Wylde and Barron Field. Smaller grants were made to John Sherrard, about whom little is known, and Simeon Lord. Simeon Lord was a retailer, auctioneer, sealer, pastoralist, timber merchant, wholesale merchant etc. In 1820 Commissioner Bigge noted that Simeon Lord and John Wylde were the largest landholders in Sydney. John's father Thomas was also granted land there. All these grants were later amalgamated into the property known as Cecil Hills. In 1972 the state government purchased the property for residential development as part of the Green Valley Housing Scheme.
Centennial Park - In 1788, the runoff of water from the surrounding area collected in the area where it subsequently drained into Botany Bay through a series of swamps. Being a year-round abundant supply of fresh water, it was a focal point in local Aboriginal life and a well used camping and hunting ground. From it ran a maze of well worn paths to other camps and water holes in an area bounded by the Harbour to the north, Botany Bay to the south and west to around where Canterbury is today. These paths were used by the white settlers to travel from one part of the colony to another. Oxford Street was built along one such path which linked the swamps of Centennial Park to Cockle Bay and water holes near today's Hyde Park, Central Railway Station and the University of Sydney.
When the stream around which the settlement of Sydney had sprung up became contaminated and dried up, the lakes of what was to become Centennial Park were seen as a viable alternative. Under a scheme adopted by Gov. Macquarie, an underground tunnel was constructed by convicts from what today is Busbys Lake near the Robertson Park Road entrance to a small reservoir in Hyde Park, where water carriers dispersed the precious liquid.
The 220 hectare park itself was created in 1888 as a major government project to mark the centenary of Sydney. It was formed by draining the swamps and channelling the water into a series of lakes which were to be surrounded by open parkland. The terrain of the area was quite different to what we see today, and it took a gang of 150 labourers to cut roads through the rock and dense scrub, and a further 435 men, employed through a work relief programme, to move the sandhills to the north, level the land and plant the lawns, flower beds and trees we see today. On 1st January 1901, 100,000 people gathered in Centennial Park to witness the the Commonwealth of Australia coming into being, when Australia's first Federal ministry was sworn in by the first Governor-General at a ceremony here.
Neighbouring Moore Park, which incorporates a golf course, the old showgrounds, the Sydney Cricket Ground and the Sydney Football Stadium, was set aside as part of the common for the town of Sydney by Gov. Macquarie in 1814. The triangle bounded by Cleveland Street and Anzac Parade, a site occupied today by the Sydney Boys High School, was once the site of the Sydney Zoo.
Chatswood / Chatswood West - subject to conjecture, but generally taken to have been a derivation of Chattie's wood. "Chattie" was Charlotte Harnett, the second wife of Richard Hayes Harnett, a land developer who subdivided and sold land in the Chatswood estate in 1876. It is said that the term "Chattie's Wood" was coined by Harnett because Charlotte used to enjoy taking walks through a nearby timbered estate and paint there.
The bushland surrounding the upper reaches Swaines Creek are believed to be the remnants of those "woods". Their exact location is uncertain, but from the recollections of now deceased descendents of Charlotte Harnett, the woods were most likely in the vicinity of present day Ferndale Park at the end of Eddy Road, Chatswood West. Enid Cambridge (deceased), a descendent (niece) of Charlotte Harnett, had recounted that Charlotte had told her she used to take her afternoon walks through woods down the Fullers Road near James, Jenkins and Edgar Streets. The Harnett home stood near where present day Chatswood Railway Station stands. There is further evidence that there was a very early walking track through woods near Fullers and Edgar Roads. In 1876 Harnett: opened up the area with a subdivision which he called Chatswood Estate . Chatswood Estate was later purchased by the Department of Railways for the construction of the station, railway line and goods yard . Richard, Chattie and their 16 children moved to Mosman after the Chatswood Estate had been subdivided and sold.
Chatsworth - the name recalls the family home of the Cavendish family in the British Midlands, England. The first house was built by 'Bess of Hardwick' (c.1527-1608) and her second husband Sir William Cavendish (1505-57). Their second son, William, became the heir and was created Earl of Devonshire in 1618. Building began in 1552 and continued for many years.
Cheltenham - named for William Chorley's house Cheltenham, after his birthplace in Gloucestershire. Chorley, a tailor, bought land between Epping and Beecroft, possibly between 1887 and 1888. The March 1888 land sale at Beecroft included 55 lots offered for the first time and covering the whole of the future Cheltenham from Murray Road to Devlins Creek, west of the railway line. Throughout the 1890s portions not previously sold were re-advertised. Land sales took place almost every year. Chorley had come from Strathfield. The building of the platform at Cheltenham in 1898 was the result of negotiations between Chorley and the Railway Commissioners. Invited to name the station he called it Cheltenham, after the place of his birth in Gloucestershire, England.
Cherrybrook - Cherrybrook took its name from the 65-acre orchard of Joseph and Mary Harrison. The land had been granted originally to Mary Russell during the 1820s. The south-eastern corner of Cherrybrook lies within the orchard. The first land was released in 1978. Prior to the land release it was part of West Pennant Hills. The West Pennant Hills/ Cherrybrook area saw its most rapid population growth since the early 1980's. Street names
Chester Hill - Contrary to popular belief, there is no one named Chester after whom this locality was named. The area was called Boroya by the Aborigines, but this was not known to railway authorities when they went looking for a name for their new station here. They approached the local residents for suggestions and one of them, a Miss H.A. McMillan, came up with a number of suggestions which she passed by her neighbours. These included Hillcrest and Hillchester, after a town in England she had visited and had an affection for, but the suggestion was rejected. She inverted the name, making it Chester Hill, and it won favour and was adopted. Brief history: the first white settlers developed the area as market gardens and orchards. When the Regents Park railway came through in 1924, light industry and residential development began.
Chifley - named after Joseph Benedict Chifley (1885-1951), Australia's Labor Prime Minister at the end of World War II.
Originally part of Bunnerong, it was proclaimed as a separate suburb in 1964 when major subdivision and development took place. Bunnerong House was the first house built in the area in 1825. Most of the land was owned by the Crown and during the Depression land was leased to potential home owners who built their homes progressively. Many of its street names recall persons from Australia's history.
Chippendale - named after William Henry Chippendale, a free settler and friend of Earl Bathurst who arrived in NSW with a letter to Gov. Macquarie requesting he be granted land in the colony. The land he received is present day Chippendale and a section of Redfern near the railway station. The land was subdivided and sold for housing in 1838.
Chipping Norton - named by William Alexander Long after a village in Oxfordshire, England. Long was born in Sydney and went to England to study law. While there he lived for a time in the Oxfordshire village of Chipping Norton. On his return to Sydney, he purchased numerous former land grants to the east of Liverpool and established a horse stud on his property, which he named Chipping Norton. It was bought by the government after Long's death and subdivided into farming blocks for returned World War I soldiers in 1919. These gave way to industry and residential development after World War II.
Chiswick - named after the estate of Dr. Fortuescue, which was named after a village west of London on the River Thames, England. The estate was established in the 1850s. The naming of Chiswick started the trend of naming suburbs on the Parramatta River after localities on the River Thames.
Chowder Bay: The name recalls the seafood stew eaten by American whalers who set up a whaling station in the vicinity of Clifton Gardens in early colonial times. Presumably they boiled the stew in pots on the shores of the bay. Aboriginal name for the bay: Koree; Chowder Head - Gurugal.
Chullora - from an Aboriginal word meaning "flour". Brief history - remained virgin bush then cattle grazing country until the building of the railway workshops around the turn of the 20th century when land was subdivided for railway workers' accommodation.
Church Point - derived from a 19th century church built on the point.
Brief history - McCarr's Creek was surveyed by Capt. John Hunter in 1789 and by Surveyor W.R. Govett in 1829. From that time, weekend cottages began to dot the countryside around Coal and Candle Creek. Coal was discovered in the area in the 1830s but no attempts have been made to mine it commercially.
Claremont Meadows - recalls Claremont, the name of the property of settler Bryan Molloy. Claremont was already in use as the name of the local Parish. There are three places in England named Claremont; it most likely is named after one of these.
Brief history: Gov. Macquarie granted Mary Bligh an additional 1055 acres of land here as a wedding present when she married her second husband Maurice O'Connell in 1810. This property was named Coallee. The O'Connells never lived on the property and in 1855 the land was initially sold to Andrew McCullock who subdivided the area into four blocks before re-selling them. The western blocks, which make up the neighbourhood of Claremont Meadows were initially purchased by Henry Nash, and later by Bryan Molloy. The farm was divided between his children after his death in 1885. The area was opened up as a housing estate in 1984.
Clarendon - the suburb was named after the residence of William Cox , thus named after a homestead in England. Cox built the original road over the Blue Mountains.
Clareville - the name was used by the developer, Arthur J. small, to a subdivision of land here, though its name suggests it might have originally been the name of a property in the area known as Clare Ville. Part of Avalon on the Barrenjoey Peninsula, the land was a section of Father Therry's grant on the peninsula. Once a centre for boatbuilding on Pittwater, it is today a quiet, exclusive suburb with a predominance of retirees among its residents.
Claymore - named after a local home. The area was originally known by an Aboriginal word, Badgally, the name of the hilltop homestead of the Moore family (now part of St Gregory's College).
Brief history: an early homestead in the area named Glenroy may have been built as early as 1857, on part of a 22 ha land grant awarded to Daniel Brady in 1816. From 1929, it was operated as a dairy farm by World War II veteran, Charles McClelland and his wife, Minnie. Glenroy remained in family hands until the 1960's, when much of it was purchased by the Housing Commission. When the suburb was being planned in the 1970s, the name Badgally was mooted but decided against. As a large number of dwellings in the development would be Housing Commission homes, it was feared the name would be corrupted into "Bad Girlie" or Bad Gully". Strangely, Glenroy was passed over as a suitable name. Claymore farm was actually called Rosslyn when the Bursill family owned it from 1921-1936. In the 1940's, when it was sold to Dr. Abbott, it was renamed Bukit Senung and it wasn't until the 1960's that an owner called Vanderbilt called it Claymore, after the fearsome battle sword used by Scottish Highlanders. By the 1970's, Vanderbilt had erected three mock Claymore swords on his gate - and this is believed to be what caught the attention of Housing Commission officers. Claymore's streets are named after Australian artists.
Clemton Park - name associated with Frederick Moore Clements, who made and sold Clement's Tonic.
Brief history: for many years the area was part of the Laycock estate, and a popular place for hunting. Clements, from whose name the locality's name is derived, owned a 40 acre property here until his death in 1920. When his property was developed for housing, the name Clementon Park was suggested for the new subdivision, but for some unknown reason, perhaps in error, was shortened to Clemton Park.
Clifton Gardens - named after Captain E.H. Cliffe's home, Cliffeton, which gave rise to the naming of a hotel in the area in 1871 as the Clifton Arms Hotel. Cliffe, a whaling captain, bought land here in 1832, anchoring his ships in nearby Chowder Bay. The Clifton Arms was bought by David Thompson in 1891. He built a wharf, dancing pavilion and picnic facilities nearby and called it Clifton Gardens.
Clontarf - possibly named after the suburb of Dublin, Ireland , though how, why and by whom it was named is not known. Its beach, on Middle Harbour opposite The Spit, became a popular picnic spot and it was here, on 12th March 1868, that Prince Alfred, the Duke of Edinburgh and son of Queen Victoria, was shot whilst at a picnic by an Irishman, Henry James O'Farrell. The prince's thick clothing saved him from serious injury and he quickly recovered. O'Farrell was subsequently tried for murder and hanged at Darlinghurst Gaol.
Clovelly - named after a local estate owned by Sir John Robertson. Originally known as Little Coogee, the name of Eastbourne, after an English seaside town, was first mooted but the suggestion by the local progress association to name it after Robertson's estate was preferred and adopted. Clovelly's first white settler was William C. Greville who in 1834 bought 20 acres here with frontage of the whole bay for just £40 ($80).
Clyde - name suggested by Commissioner for the Railways, C.M.G. Eddy. The railway station here was originally named Rosehill Junction when it was first opened in 1882. It was changed to Clyde Junction in 1901 as a nearby subdivision of land released for sale in 1878 had been called New Glasgow. Eddy suggested the name be shortened to Clyde in 1904 as "New Glasgow is close by, and as Old Glasgow is watered by the Clyde, to which Duck River may be likened, perhaps Clyde would not be unacceptable."
Coasters Retreat - also known as Smugglers Cove as it was from here that a group of escaped convicts smuggled illicit liquor overland through Lane Cove to Sydney. Today it is a small settlement of holiday homes. The name refers to coastal trading vessels, or coasters as they were known, which took refuge here in storms.
Cobbitty - an old and rather beautiful village is Cobbitty, originally spelled 'Kobbaddee' or 'Cobbedee', after the locality's Aboriginal name. Settled in 1812, it features historic buildings, tranquil atmosphere and pleasant rural setting by the Nepean.
Colebee - Named after the Aboriginal Colebee who was granted Portion 27 (30 acres) in the Parish of Gidley. Colebee is one of two Aborigines to be granted land this area by Gov. Macquarie. Colebee is a suburb located about 2 km west of Quakers Hill Railway Station and immediately to the north of Dean Park.
Collaroy - from an Aboriginal word meaning 'long reeds'. Brief history: the land was released for grazing in 1816, its first occupants being the Jenkins family and later The Salvation Army. Its name was adopted after the steamer Collaroy ran aground just north of Long Reef in 1881. Though the steamer was able to be refloated, it attracted many curious onlookers and picnickers during its time here and the beach and surrounding area became known as Collaroy.
Colyton - Colyton originally covered a much larger area extending into the Mt. Druitt district. Colyton was named by local landowner William Cox, after a town in Devon, England. Cox held over 300 acres of land in the area, which he later went on to subdivide into smaller farms.
Como / Como West - named after Lake Como (below) at the foot of the Bernese Alps in Italy.
It is believed to have been thus named by James Murphy, who was manager of the Holt-Sutherland Estate Land Company, the man responsible for building Como House and the Como Pleasure Grounds. The pleasure grounds developed as a very popular resort after the completion of the railway and erection of a railway platform at the end of the Como Bridge in December 1885. Some street names are of Aboriginal origin; others recall places in Italy, from which the suburb's name originates.
Concord / Concord West - Major Francis Grose, lieutenant-governor, settled in the Concord area in 1793. Major Grose named it Concord, a Quaker word meaning 'brotherly love'. In 1776, Grose had been a junior officer during the American War of Independence and he had fond memories of the village of Concord in Massachusetts, where the American War of Independence had its origins. Brief history - in 1838, 58 French Canadians who had taken part in the Papineau Rebellion in their own country were taken as political prisoners and transported to Sydney. They were sentenced to hard labour in the quarries of Concord before repatriation in 1845. The names France Bay, Exile Bay and Canada Bay recall the incident.
Condell Park - named after engineer Ouseley Condell, who arrived in Port Jackson in 1829. A year later he received a land grant at what is now Condell Park. The area remained virgin bush dotted with small farms until after World War II when the present suburban development began.
Connells Point - named after John Connell, a merchant who owned stores in Pitt Street and bought land here in the 1830s. His property, which remained virgin forest for many years, became known as Connell's Bush.
Coogee / South Coogee - derived from Aboriginal word 'koojah' meaning 'a stinking place', probably a reference to rotting seaweed on the beach. Brief history - the village of Coogee was gazetted in 1838 but it remained a small, isolated community of market gardening properties for many decades. When subdivision commenced in the 1880s, Coogee was promoted heavily as a picturesque sea resort. In 1887, a large aquarium was built near the beach and became a major attraction.
Cornelia - A locality and parish of the County of Cumberland bounded by the Hawkesbury and the Old Northern Road; the locality is south-west of Maroota. The origin of the name is uncertain but there are at least two possibilities. Cornelian is a semi-transparent quartz of a dull red or flesh colour used to make seals. Again Governor Darling had a daughter called Cornelia and she could be associated with the parish name because he passed through the area when inspecting the Great North Road and stayed at Solomon Wiseman's residence at Lower Portland Head. The Rev. John Dunmore Lang noted in 1834 "... so much pleased were his Excellency the late Governor and Mrs. Darling with the scenery in this vicinity, that they rented a part of Wiseman's house, and lived in it for some time."
Cottage Point: on the southern shore of Cowan Creek, at upstream entrance to Coal and Candle Creek. Formerly known as Terrys Point where James Terry built a holiday cottage about 1880. Also known as Gerrard Point in 1894. According to Alice Windybank her husband Edward built a holiday cottage here and rented it to visitors. It was also formerly known as Green Point. On a 1974 map of the Parish of Broken Bay it is shown as Green Point.
Cowan - There are several theories about the origin of the name. In the 1840s a tree here had the word 'Cowan' carved on it. Over the years it became well known as the Cowan Tree. The name first appeared in document when William Bean applied for a grant of land near the creek in 1826.
An escaped convict named Cowan crossed the Hawkesbury in the early 1800s, and as it was in the area, it could well be his name that was carved on the tree. The 1828 census lists two convicts called Cowan. It is unlikely the convict carved his name in the tree, but it is possible that his name became applied to the area.
There is a place in Scotland with the name, after which it may have been named. In the local Aboriginal dialect, the word means 'big water', or 'opposite' or 'the other side', and this appears to be the most likely source of the name. Street names
Cranebrook - named by farmer James McCarthy who settled in the area in 1794. Nine years later he received a 100 acre grant from Gov. King, and built Cranebrook House on the property. McCarthy is believed to have been one of the first farmers in the district, and successfully, grew wheat and corn, had extensive vineyards and ran cattle and horses.
Cremorne - derived from the name of an amusement park at the location operated by two promoters, Clarke & Woolcott, between 1856 and 1862. It recalls the famous Cremorne Gardens in London (below). The peninsula was originally named Careening Point as it was near Careening Cove where early sailing vessels were beached to clean barnacles from their hulls. It was then named Robertson Point after it was granted to the father of parliamentarian Sir John Robertson in 1826. James Milson, after who nearby Milson Point is named, owned the land between Robertson and the amusement park operators, Clarke & Woolcott. By 1862 the Cremorne Gardens had been abandoned and remained thus despite numerous attempts to revive it. In 1895, coal was discovered here near the corner of present day Hodgson Avenue and Cremorne Road. Two shafts were sunk on the point but coal mining was abandoned due to public pressure as the land had been subdivided and numerous streets and residences were already in place. Many of these early streets are named after Australian cricketers who had just returned from a successful tour of England on which they had won the test match series.
Crestwood - named after the housing development company, Crestwood Homes, which opened up much of the area in the 1970s.
Cromer / Cromer Heights - named after a small town in East Anglia, England. Originally known as Dee Why West, the local golf club asked for the name to be changed in 1940 to Cromer, as the town in England of that name has a splendid golf club. The Dee Why golf Club's 100 acres was part of the original grant of 1841 to Father John Joseph Therry.
Cronulla / North Cronulla - the name's origin is obscure; two theories abound, the latter is the most likely - 1. Cronulla is the name given by local aborigines to an early settler, John Connell; 2. The native word for a small pink shell found on the beaches of Cronulla is Kurranulla.
Brief history: Cronulla remained an isolated beach until the turn of the 20th century when it was becoming popular as a holiday destination. The establishment of a steam tramway from Sutherland to Cronulla significantly boosted the latter's growth and popularity.
Crosslands - in 1856 Burton Crossland, the Yorkshire-born son of a boat builder, was employed on Berowra Creek to care-take 43 acres of river flats, owned by Matthew Charlton. He built two boats and many of the early homes of Berowra Creek settlers, among them George Collingridge's home, Capo di Monte. Crosslands is a locality on Berowra Creek upstream from Calna Creek.
Crows Nest - the name of the cottage built by an early landowner, Edward Wollstonecraft, in 1819. It was so named as it was set high on a hill and enjoyed panoramic harbour views.
First granted: to Edward Wollstonecraft in 1819.
Brief history: developed for farming by Alexander Berry, who built the larger "Crows Nest House" in 1850 on the site of the North Sydney Demonstration School. Major urban development in the area began when Berry's property was subdivided for home sites after his death in 1873. A cable tram service to Milson Point began in 1893.
Croydon - named after the London suburb. The railway station of Croydon which was initially opened in 1875 as Five Dock, was soon renamed Croydon. The present name was suggested by Ashfield Council in 1876 but the reason for its selection is unknown.
Brief history: the first white settler was Mary Nelson, the wife of convict Isaac Nelson, who came to Australia as a free settler in 1791. She was granted 15 acres here on what is known locally as Malvern Hill. Numerous other grants were made, one to First Fleeter and the colony's first surveyor-general, Baron Augustus Alt (1731-1815), whose 100 acre grant which he named Heritage Farm, included where the railway station now stands. From the 1860s, the farms of the area were slowly subdivided for housing lots and the village of Croydon grew.
Croydon Park - named as a separate suburb to Croydon due to inefficient postal deliveries. The suburb of Croydon Park takes its name from the land subdivision of the same name which in turn is named after the London suburb. The subdivision was sold in two sections. The first sold in 1878 was the northern end of Croydon Avenue. The second, larger section in 1880, and took in all land west from Croydon Avenue to Melrose Street and from Georges River Road south to Cook's River. Two avenues one hundred feet wide were planted with shade trees and a piece of flood prone land on the river was offered to Canterbury Council as a reserve to be known as Croydon Park. Croydon Park subdivisions sold well and were initially settled by people in the building trade, including builders, slaters, joiners and brickmakers, as well as Chinese gardeners who had market gardens on the fertile Cook's River flood plain.
Curl Curl / South Curl Curl - from an Aboriginal word thought to mean 'lagoon' which would refer to nearby Manly Lagoon . The first land grant here was made in 1818 to Thomas Bruin. The area was subdivided in the land boom of the 1880s into various estates, including Freshwater Heights and Curl Curl Heights. The southern part of present day Harbord was called Curl Curl Heights, but then the name was used to describe Queenscliff until the 1930s, being first recorded in 1899. Curl Curl North, which lies north of Dee Why Head, was renamed Wingala. Today, the name Curl Curl refers to the beach area of Queenscliff only.
Currans Hill - recalls Michael Curran, an early resident, who died 1916, aged 90 years. He was the son of Stephen Curran, an emancipated convict who was appointed Constable in the district of Upper Minto in the 1920s, and after whom Bunburry Curran Creek is named. The name Curran's Hill was first used officially for a railway platform here on the now removed Campbelltown to Camden railway line.
Currawong Beach: named presumably for its abundance of currawong. The location consists of a number of holiday homes.