Geographical Features:
Pittwater; Hawkesbury River

Hawkesbury River
The Rver was named by Gov Phillip on the occasion of his first exploratory trip along it. The name honours Charles Jenkinson (1727-1808), Lord Hawkesbury and 1st Earl of Liverpool (right), who was the President of the Board of Trade in the Pitt administration when the First Fleet left England in 1787. Jenkinson served as Foreign Secretary under Addington (1801-3), was Home Secretary under Pitt (1804) and rose to be Prime Minister from 1812-27.

Castle Bay:
the entrance to the bay has rock formations which look like a row of battlements.

Looking Glass Bay:
>named after a fallen slab of rock at the downstream entrance to the bay is in the shape of a looking glass.

Porto Bay:
Harry and Henry Gonsalves, two Portuguese fishermen and boatbuilders in the 1880s ran their business from Porto Bay into which the creek flows. Another source says the name is the misspelling of Porter Bay as recorded on early maps; origin unknown.

Green Point:
On the western shore of the Hawkesbury at the southern entrance to Porto Bay south of Brooklyn. This is a very common name in the lower Hawkesbury region as well as in Sydney Harbour and elsewhere. In almost all cases it relates to places that have a low rocky shore and thus can readily be used as a landing place. There is also usually evidence of an Aboriginal midden and an early European house site nearby, indicated by some exotic plants and a general absence of thick bush. The latter results from excessive nutrients in the soil from human wastes. These locations tend to be characterised by coarse grasses and appear green in contrast to the surrounding bushland. At this location at Porto Bay the name was used in 1835 when James Brannan received a land grant. An industrial miner's right was granted for this area on 12 December 1893. Mullet Creek was the site of a search for coal in the 1870s. See Alison Point.

Croppy Beach:
On the eastern shore of the Hawkesbury immediately downstream from Croppy Point which is to the southward of Dangar Island. The term 'croppy' originated in 1798 and was applied to anyone with hair cut short, and especially to the Irish rebels of 1798 who thus showed their sympathy for the French Revolution. The name was given to the beach because it was a favourite spot at which to cross the Hawkesbury for Irish convict runaways escaping south from the Hunter. Hughes notes that the United Irishmen who rebelled in Ireland in 1798, and many of whom were transported to the colony, had an anthem entitled 'The Croppy Boy'.

Dead Horse Bay:
not known. Presumably a dead horse was found or lost there.

Sandbrook Inlet:
located between Brooklyn and Long Island with its eastern end enclosed by the railway causeway. It is commonly known as the Gut. It has been suggested that the name should be Sandbrook because of some association with Dr E.R. Sandbrook. He was medical officer on Milson and Peat Islands for several years prior to World War II and from 1953 to 1966. It seems unlikely that the name would be so recent; it is more likely to be associated with the discharge of sand from Seymours Creek at the western end of the inlet.

Dangar Isld:
Captain Phillip's exploration party landed on Dangar Island on the 7th of March 1788. They caught a quantity of fish and so named it Mullet Island. It was purchased in 1864 by Henry Carey Dangar. The current name appears on an 1872 Admiralty chart but the island was not officially renamed until 1922. In the early days some boat building took place and salt was produced for shipment to Sydney.

Mareela Reef:
Mareela Reef extends to the southward from the eastern end of Bradleys Beach on Dangar Island. Endacott gives Mareela as an Aboriginal word meaning 'mullet'. It was on the adjacent Bradleys Beach that Governor Phillip's exploration party in 1788 managed to net a good haul of mullet, so the name seems an appropriate one although its age is not known.

Coolongolook Point:
the southern most point of Dangar Island. Believed to be derived from the Aboriginal word for 'kite' (bird). It has been shown as Whistling Kite Point on a Hornsby Shire Council map.

Bradleys Beach:
on the southern shore of Dangar Island west of Mareela Reef. It was named after Lt. William Bradley, a member of Governor Phillip's expedition who camped on the island on March 7, 1788.

Little Wobby Beach:
The shoreline running upstream from Croppy Point south-east of Dangar Island. Said to be named after the wobbegong shark which was common in the lower river. It is the Aboriginal name for the carpet shark (above). Little Wobbie is also known as Tumbledown because of the frequent rock falls from the cliffs behind the shore.

Long Island:
This island, which shelters the locality of Brooklyn, is a nature reserve. It was thus named not just for its shape. Brooklyn was still known by its original name, Hawkesbury River, in 1884 when the decision was made to build the first railway bridge across the Hawkesbury beyond the village by the Union Bridge Company of Brooklyn, New York USA. At the time, the township was nicknamed Brooklyn. The adjoining island was nicknamed Long Island as the New York borough of Brooklyn is situated on Long Island. Both names stuck.

Sanatorium Rock:
A large rock on the northern shore of Long Island about halfway along it. The name derives from the fact that for many years the rock had a prominent sign painted on it:
"Turn left for the sanatorium". This was a direction to people travelling up the Hawkesbury by boat to enable them to find the Sanatorium Hotel which was situated in Sandbrook Inlet on the site later occupied by a convent. The hotel was first licensed in 1888. The Sanatorium Hotel features on an early five pound note, on the reverse side. The name of the owner of the hotel was 'Lenehan'.

Parsley Bay:
On the western shore of the Hawkesbury immediately south of Flat Rock Point at Brooklyn. Probably named after the native plant, Apium Prostratum, which grew locally and was used as a vegetable by Aborigines and early settlers.

Dead Horse Bay:
is located on the western shore of the Hawkesbury south of Brooklyn and between Sandy Bay and Parsley Bay. It is also shown as Lookout Bay on Admiralty Chart 204. Perhaps a dead horse was washed ashore here at some time:
a whale was stranded here in the 1980s. The name Lookout Bay would have arisen from the common early practice of posting someone to look for shoals of fish in order to alert the local fishing community.
Sandy Bay:
Sandy Bay is on the western shore of the Hawkesbury River south of Brooklyn and Dead Horse Bay. It was presumably named because of its sandy shore.

Gunyah Beach:
On the western shore of the Hawkesbury north of the entrance to Cowan Creek and immediately downstream from Gunyah Point.

Cogra Point / Bay:
Aboriginal, meaning rushes or reeds

Alison Point:
situated within Portion 64 granted to William Alison.

Spectacle Island:
Spectacle Island is at the entrance to Mooney Mooney Creek. The name is often said to be connected with the view from the summit but a more likely origin is the lens-like shape of the island, as with the island of the same name in Sydney Harbour. The name was in use prior to 1840 as George Peat's nearby land grant was said to be opposite Spectacle Island. A land Department map of 1898 shows that it was declared a reserve on 16 April, 1962.

Snake Island:
presumably because of the snakes found there.

Neverfail Island:
A mangrove island in Mangrove Creek between Spencer and Popran Creek. Said to be named because the setting of nets near the island never failed to yield a good haul of fish. Another possibility is that there was a reliable source of spring water in nearby Neverfail Gully.
Neverfail Gully:
Extends to the east of Mangrove Creek along an unnamed stream opposite Neverfail Island.

Island Flat:
On the northern shore of Mangrove Creek to the west of the confluence with Bedlam Creek and where Mangrove Creek turns sharply to the north. An early name said to derive from some rather higher ground that rose in the centre of the river flat like a small island. It is the site of an early graveyard, usually referred to as Greengrove Cemetery, and the Anglican church of St Peter's built around 1834, and now a hayshed.
Crafts Creek:
Drains into Mangrove Creek just above the weir. The name derives from Joseph Craft Snr who took up 20 acres of land here in 1821, the name of the farm being Primrose Hill.
Sugee Bag Creek:
Believed to be derived from the Hindu word 'suki', a type of flour made from Indian corn. This was imported into the area from India in sacks marked 'Suki' when local crops failed or were inadequate.
Popran Creek:
origin unknown.

Peat Island:
in the Hawkesbury towards the eastern shore and upstream of the freeway bridge. Formerly known as Rabbit Island because its shape is said to resemble a rabbit. The first use of the current name appears to have been in 1936. George Peat was granted land nearby in 1831. The island was linked to the mainland by a causeway in the early 1950s. It appears as Rabbit Island or Goat Island on a Lands Department map of 1898.

Mud Island:
a small mangrove island at the entrance to Pumpkin Point Creek on the western shore of the Hawkesbury downstream from Gentlemans Halt. The name appears on a 1904 survey map but it is almost certainly older.

Cabbage Point:
On the eastern shore of the Hawkesbury, immediately north of Peat Island. Named after the cabbage tree palms, Livistona Australis, that were once abundant along the river. Maiden noted:
"The Aboriginals are very fond of the growing centre heart of this tree, which they eat in a raw or cooked state." The early settler used the timber to make walking sticks and timber slabs, and they hollowed out the trunks to fashion pig troughs. The palm leaves were also used for making hats. In 1863, a well-made cabbage tree hat cost up to three pounds, which was a considerable sum of money. They were still being made early this century. They are still made today in the McDonald Valley.

Milson Island:
in the Hawkesbury towards the western shore and upstream of Peats Ferry Bridge. It was originally called Mud Island and named as such on Major Mitchell's map of 1834. This name presumably arose because of the extensive mud bank at the downstream end of the island which constituted a navigational hazard. It was an early land grant to an Aborigine called Granny Lewis and was brought by Robert Milson in 1865. It was purchased by the government in 1901. Robert Milson lived on the mainland between the island and Kangaroo Point; he died in 1886 and was buried on Bar Island. The current name appears on an Admiralty chart of 1872, and an 1898 Lands Department map shows the island as Milson or Mud Island. The northern tip of Milson Island has the distinction of being the most northerly point of metropolitan Sydney.

Big Jims Point:
James Stanbury, the first white child born on Dangar Island. Stanbury was a very big man renowned for his strength who would row 15 km upriver from Dangar Island to Big Jims Point where he built his home. He held the world sculling title in 1891, 1892 and 1896 at a time when sculling was a very popular sport on the Hawkesbury and Stanbury was virtually unbeatable. He is said to have been able to carry a 60 kg bag of corn under each arm without difficulty.

Milsons Passage:
the Channel between Milson Island and the mainland to the west. Is is shown as South Channel on a Lands Department Map of 1885. There is also a reference to it as The Gutter in 1926. The channel is named after Robert Milson. For more information see the entry on Milson Island.

Prickly Point:
on the Hawkesbury River west of Milson Island and at the northern end of Milsons Passage. It is said locally to have been named by fisherman who, prior to the introduction of trawlers, dragged prawn nets along the shore and whose bare feet were bothered by the sharp aerial roots of mangroves protruding from the mud.

Gentleman's Halt:
The peninsula extending from the southern shore of the Hawkesbury opposite the mouth of Mangrove Creek. The name is usually claimed to have originated from Governor Phillip and his party having camped there in 1789, but it has been shown to be unlikely that they did camp at this location. For most if the 19th century it was known as Mangrove Flat. The earliest mention of the present name is in The Town and Country Journal of 21 February 1891. The first land grant was of 60 acres to Ward Stevens in 1831; William Bowles, master mariner, acquired 80 acres in 1879 and built the sandstone house which stands above the mangroves downstream from the peninsula; this is referred to as Gentleman's Halt today.

Pumpkin Point:
on the western shore of the Hawkesbury River downstream from Gentlemans Halt and at the entrance to Pumpkin Point Creek. There appears to be no information regarding the names origin, but Joseph Izzard was granted one acre here in 1823. Given the nature of the terrain it is highly unlikely that any pumpkins were grown on the point but they could have been cultivated in the rich valley further along the creek. It would therefore seem plausible that the creek was named first followed later by the naming of Pumpkin Creek Point.

First Fleeter Peter Hibbs, seaman HMS Sirius who accompanied Gov Phillip on his exploration of the Hawkesbury in 1789 and later settled here. Hibbs sailed with Bass and Flinders when they circumnavigated Tasmania in 1801. Hibbs' gravestone (above) is located at the Wisemans Ferry cemetery.

Triangle Island:
A small mangrove covered island, triangular in shape hence its name.

Sentry Box Reach:
A reach of the Hawkesbury which extends downstream from the Gunderman S-bend. The name was in use prior to 1836 as Richard Palmer was granted land there in that year. The name probably originated with the early boatmen and is associated with a rock feature resembling a sentry box, located about halfway along the reach and between the shore and Wisemans Ferry Road. Bladen mentions that around 1900 a company was engaged in the extraction of iron oxide adjacent to the rock. A 1937 Lands Department map shows three leases to mine for mineral pigments along the lower shore of the reach.

Wisemans Ferry:
is unique with its Courthouse Cave, convict built road and carved stone lions that guard the old stone steps of the Inn. It was named after Solomon Wiseman (right), and is a small farming settlement on the southern bank of the Hawkesbury River. By 1821 settlement had arrived at the mouth of the McDonald River, and opposite, at Portland Head and Solomon Wiseman opened an Inn called The Packet. In 1827 he obtained a license for a ferry across the River thus giving the name to the place. A dying convict who Wiseman had flogged is said to have cursed him, and years later the burial vault of Wiseman and his wife was broken open, the coffin smashed and bones scattered. The Inn is said to be haunted.

Webb's Creek:
Enters the western shore of the Hawkesbury opposite Wisemans Ferry. James Webb (1763?-1848) arrived with the Second Fleet in 1790 as a member of the New South Wales Corps. After discharge in 1794 he worked as a shipwright and acquired land along the Hawkesbury. In 1822 he was said to be living at 'Lower Branch' when he sought permission to launch a vessel of 15 tonnes. He was the first European settler at Brisbane Water, where in 1823 he was granted a temporary right to occupy land. Surveyor Matthew's survey map of 1833-34 shows James Webb owned 530 acres on the western shore of Webb's Creek at its confluence with the Hawkesbury.

Devine's Hill:
The ascent of the Old Great North Road from near the mouth of the McDonald River. Land at the entrance to the river where the old road begins its steep climb was owned by Owen Devine and is shown on the 1833 map of Surveyor Mathew. Devine was sentenced to life in 1800 and transported on the Minorca in 1801 and pardoned in 1812. He was promised land opposite Wisemans Ferry in 1813 which was granted in 1833.

Nagles Gully:
enters the eastern shore of the Hawkesbury about two kilometres downstream of Wisemans Ferry where Mill Creek joins the river. Thomas Nagle lived here; he died in 1867. This was the site of a tidal mill owned by James Singleton, the first person to operate such a mill on the river.

Fox Point:
Located somewhere in the Wisemans Ferry area but exact location unknown. Not in current use. Francis Byrnes was transported in 1816 and in 1820 he married Sarah Hibbs, the daughter of Peter Hibbs. He secured several land grants along the lower Hawkesbury. The 1828 Census lists him as a miller living at Fox Point Lower Portland Head. Given his occupation there could have been a connection with the tidal mill at Nagles Gully downstream from Wisemans Ferry.

Trollope Reach:
recalls the English novelist Anthony Trollope (right) who visited the area in 1872 and became a great admirer of the Hawkesbury.

Foul Weather Reach:
thus named by Gov Phillip in 1789 as they experienced foul weather when navigating this section of the river.

Foul Weather Reach:
A reach of the Hawkesbury at Gunderman running north from Singletons Mill. The early sailing craft would often have had to beat against the wind in this reach.

Seymours Creek:
Drains into the western end of Sandbrook Inlet south of Kangaroo Point. William Seymour was a pioneer settler of the Peats Ferry district. Vincent William Seymour, a retired mariner, settled here around 1860. An 1885 Lands Department map shows Seymour as the owner of the land through which the creek flows.

Pumpkin Point Creek:
rises at Canoelands Ridge and drains eastward to enter the Hawkesbury River at Pumpkin Point. Messrs Hourston, Griffith and Johns obtained land grants along the creek in 1831 but the creek is unnamed on the survey map of that same date. It would seem plausible that pumpkins were grown in the valley and that the creek was so-named.

Ironbark Creek:
Rises near Mangrove Mountain and runs south-west to enter Mangrove Creek downstream from the Bedlam Creek confluence. Named after the timber that was extensively logged in the area during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The name is shown in one of Surveyor Larmer's notebooks for 1833. Richard Woodbury was granted 50 acres in 1830 opposite the confluence of the creek with Mangrove Creek, the farm to be known as 'Cherry Hill'.

One Tree Reach:
It is near One Tree Hill, thus named because it had a solitary tree on top of it.

Crabtree Gully:
Enters the Colo River south of Colo Heights:
a Crabtree's wharf at Wilberforce is mentioned as being in use in 1823. Hugh Crabtree had land here up to 1834.

Dalgetys Creek:
Rises east of the Old Northern Road and enters the Hawkesbury downstream from One Tree Reach. Samuel Gonnerman Dalgety was granted 85 acres here around 1840 and the name is presumably associated with him. He married Elizabeth Wiseman of Lower Hawkesbury on 11 March 1840.

Foodys Wharf:
On the eastern shore of the Hawkesbury at the upstream end of Sentry Box Reach the remains of the wharf are still clearly evident beside Wisemans Ferry Road. The 1828 census lists James Foody as a labourer at Lower Portland Head. He or his descendants acquired land in the valley now partly taken up by the Muskoka horse stud. There is a Foody Spur a little further to the east. James Foody died in 1870 aged 78.

Fiaschis Wharf:
On the western shore of the Hawkesbury in Portland Reach at its downstream end opposite Mud Island. The wharf was washed away in a flood about 1925.

Ebenezer Wharf:
On the western shore of the Hawkesbury at the end of Ebenezer Wharf Road at the northern end of Clarence Reach. It was in use up until the end of World War I but no longer exists. Sometimes called Land Turtle Wharf.

Bathurst Reach:
named in honour of Lord Bathurst, secretary of State for the Colonies during Lachlan Macquarie's governorship of NSW. In August 1813 he warned Macquarie of a possible invasion of the Hawkesbury by the French and Americans. He believed they planned to land at Broken Bay and travel upstream and take possession of the grain fields of Windsor. Bathurst and Liverpool Reaches were named at this time by Macquarie when he visited the area to warn of the invasion.

Coopers Creek:
rises near Maroota and then enters Dalgetys Creek which joins the Hawkesbury at One Tree Reach. A parish map of Frederick shows a cooper owned land near Weavers Ridge to the east of the Old Northern Road and the name may recall him. Ashdale Creek:
Ashdale Creek rises near Maroota and runs into Layburys Creek which enters the Hawkesbury on its southern shore opposite Gunderman. There is no information regarding its origins.

Becketts Forest:
Becketts Forest is located at the head of Ashdale Creek just east of the Old Northern Road at Maroota. There is no information available regarding its origins but it may be associated with James Beckett (1793-1876) who married Mary, the daughter of George Best, a prosperous farmer at Seven Hills.

Liverpool Reach:
named by Macquarie in honour of Robert Jenkinson, the Earl of Liverpool.

Singletons Mill:
A site on the bank of the Hawkesbury at the mouth of Laybury's Creek opposite Gunderman. In 1834 Mrs Felton Mathew mentioned that a water mill was under construction here. The mill was built for James and Benjamin Singleton. The disused mill was a familiar landmark at the end of the 19th century. The town of Singleton was named after Benjamin Singleton. James and Benjamin had established a flour mill on Wheeny Creek near Kurrajong and later applied for land on the Hawkesbury River to set up a tidal mill, prior to 1820. The mill did very well; by 1834 James had built a larger mill downstream on the southern side. The water-driven wheel was five metres in diameter, and the grinding stones weighed one tonne each.

Paradise Point:
Reuben Smith, a dentist, built a house here which he named 'Paradise'.

Bullnose Point:
its shape.

Half Moon Bends:
named by Macquarie because of their shape.

Leets Creek:
recalls Israel Leet, an early settler and shipbuilder of the area.

Stone Drain Creek:
The creek enters the Hawkesbury River at Pacific Park, via a long man-made channel carved through solid rock. In places this channel is 7 metres deep. Floodgates once operated in the stone drain.

Colo River:
when Ensign Francis Barrallier explored the area in 1802, the local Aborigines told him that the Aboriginal name for the marsupial we know to day as the koala was colo. It is from this name that the river received its name and from which the name koala is derived.

Gloucester Reach:
named by Macquarie in honour of the son of William IV, the Duke of Gloucester. He entered the army as a colonel in 1789 and was made field marshall in 1816. Gloucester Reach:
A reach of the Hawkesbury extending upstream from the Colo confluence.

Sussex Reach:
named by Macquarie in honour of the son of William IV, the Duke of Sussex.

Cambridge Reach:
named by Macquarie in honour of the son of William IV, the Duke of Cambridge. Originally known as Sawyers Reach after a saw mill camp established there in 1796.

Cumberland Reach:
named by Macquarie in honour of the son of William IV, the Duke of Cumberland. Originally called Bostons Reach after an early settler.

Kent Reach:
named by Macquarie in honour of the son of William IV, the Duke of Kent.

Sackville Reach:
named by Macquarie in honour of the son of William IV, George Germain, Viscount Sackville (1716-1785). He was secretary of state for the colonies. He later served in the government of Lord North as commissioner of trade and plantations (1775-1779), and as secretary of state for the colonies (1775-1782). Although he died three years before the establishment of Port Jackson he would have been involved in discussions of plans for a new colonial settlement.

Portland Reach:
named by Macquarie in honour of the son of William IV, the Duke of Portland.

Upper Crescent Reach / Lower Crescent Reach:
their shape.

Port Erringhi:
The most popular and successful of all the Hawkesbury steamships, the SS Erringhi, which worked the river to this point between 1912 and the late 1940s. She was scuttled off Sydney Heads in 1951.

Swallow Rock Reach:
here there is a cliff with deep water at its foot, hence the name.

Clarence Reach:
named by Macquarie in honour of the Duke of Clarence.

York Reach:
named by Macquarie in honour of the Duke of York.

Little Cattai Creek:
taken from the name of the local Aboriginal tribe, the Cattai.

Canning Reach:
George Canning (right), the Prime Minister of England in 1827 who instigated the expedition by James Stirling to examine the west coast of Australia for a suitable site for a colony there.

Halls Point:
George Smith Hall, who built a house named Merrymount there in the 1820s. The ruins of the house remain.

Gronos Point:
A peninsula on the northern shore of the Hawkesbury bounded by York, Canning and Clarence Reaches. Gronos Point is at the south-east corner of the peninsula and Hominy Point is at the south-west corner. John Grono (1767-1847) arrived in the colony in 1799. After a notable career as a seafarer he retired in 1827 and purchased land on the Hawkesbury opposite what is now Gronos Point. There he farmed and engaged in shipbuilding, constructing some of the largest vessels to be built on the Hawkesbury. In the 19th century, the Hawkesbury River was much deeper than it is today. Grono made several voyages to New Zealand captaining the Governor Bligh.

Homini Point:
descriptive of the colour of the vegetation there.

Wilberforce Reach:
British parliamentarian, William Wilberforce, who helped abolish slavery in the British Empire. Windsor Reach:
its location to the township of Windsor.

Argyle Reach:
named by Macquarie after his Scottish homeland.

Freeman's Reach:
A locality and a reach of the Hawkesbury north of Richmond and upstream of Argyle Reach. A very early name but its origins are uncertain. Steele says: 'A district along the river (settled by free men) in the early times.' Some say it was called after two brothers of that name who settled there. The 1828 Census lists a Samuel Freeman, millwright, living at Richmond.

Redbank Creek:
the origin of the name is not known.

Hazel Dell:
A small valley on the northern shore of the Hawkesbury upstream from Mills Creek in Dharug National Park. Charles Watkins (1845-1930), after his marriage to Esther Starkey in 1866, bought 40 acres here for the usual price of one pound per acre. Cabins and boats were advertised for hire here in 1953 before it became part of the National Park.

Haycock Reach:
A reach of the Hawkesbury between Paddy's Bight and Courangra Point. The origin of this name is uncertain. The most likely explanation is that it was named by early boatmen either because of a prominent rock feature nearby or because of the conical heaps of hay that may have been drying on Hibbs' farm at Courangra. Another possibility is that the name was originally Haydock. Peter Hibbs had land near the Colo which in 1812 was acquired by Mary Reiby, whose maiden name was Haydock. Thomas and Mary Reiby owned land at a number of places along the upper Hawkesbury but there is no evidence that they ever acquired land near Courangra.

Fagan Ridge:
Runs north parallel with the Old Northern Road from Fiddletown to Marramarra Creek. William Fagan left Ireland in the 1840s and took up land at Arcadia. He began as a shingle cutter and prospered as an orchardist.

Eagle Rock:
A cliff on the western shore of the Hawkesbury south of Brooklyn between Green Point and Gunyah Point. Named because sea eagles sometimes nest here.

Gunyah Beach:
On the western shore of the Hawkesbury north of the entrance to Cowan Creek and immediately downstream from Gunyah Point.

Dargle:
On the eastern shore of the Hawkesbury at the downstream end of Cambridge Reach near Lower Portland. A locality associated with the house built in 1831 by Andrew Doyle, an Irishman transported for his involvement in the rebellions of 1798 and 1801. The name is said to be a shortened version of Dark Glen, perhaps mis-spelt during its transfer from a surveyor's map to an official chart or map.

Taffys Gully:
drains into Porto Bay South of Brooklyn. There is no information regarding the name's origin.

Campbells Creek:
Campbells Creek rises near the freeway north of Cowan and drains into Porto Bay, south of Brooklyn.

Cow Rock:
A rock on the southern shore of the Hawkesbury just upstream from the Peats Ferry Bridge. It is said to have been named because during the 19th century cattle were swum across from George Peat's property on the northern side of the river and came ashore here at Kangaroo Point.

Seymours Creek:
Drains into the western end of Sandbrook Inlet south of Kangaroo Point. William Seymour was a pioneer settler of the Peats Ferry district. Vincent William Seymour, a retired mariner, settled here around 1860. An 1885 Lands Department map shows Seymour as the owner of the land through which the creek flows.

Kangaroo Point:
is on the southern shore of the Hawkesbury where the road bridges cross to Mooney Mooney Point. The point was named prior to 1824 when Thomas Edwards received a 'ticket of occupation' for a point of land 'known by the name of Kangaroo Point near Long Island'.

Cascade Gully:
Enters the Hawkesbury due north of Milson Island at the site of the wreck of H.M.A.S. Parramatta. Named for the impressive waterfall which flows after heavy rain.

Canoelands:
Canoelands Ridge is north of Forest Glen, and south of Becketts Forest, off Old Northern Road. There are fairly inaccessible caves and some of the best preserved Aboriginal rock-carvings in the shire. This site is believed to be related to the nearby Devil's Rock and Canoelands. The origin of the name Canoelands is difficult to establish, though it is most likely that it was a major source of bark from whichy the Aboriginal people made canoes.

Mount Murray Anderson:
located to the south of Smiths Creek, an arm of Cowan Creek. It was named in 1936 by the Trustees of Ku-Ring-Gai Chase National Park in memory of Sir Murray Anderson, Governor of New South Wales in 1936. Sir David Murray Anderson entered the Royal Navy as a cadet and rose to the rank of Admiral in 1930, he retired in 1932. He was Governor of Newfoundland 1932-35 and was appointed Governor of New South Wales in November 1935 but because of ill-health he was not sworn in until 6 August 1936 he died October 30, 1936.

Fisherman's Point:
On the western shore of the Hawkesbury immediately north of Bar Island at the entrance to Berowra Creek. The name appears on an 1831 survey map showing a land grant to F.J. King and R.W. Robinson, land speculators who also acquired 100 acres in Brooklyn in 1840. An earlier name was Fishermens Bend.

Mount Orient:
located between Berowra Creek and Berrilee. There is no information available regarding its name.

Berowra Waters:
That part of Berowra Creek between Calabash Bay and the ferry. The name probably dates from around 1902 when the road was constructed from Berowra Station to the ferry, thus making the waterway accessible to visitors from Sydney.

Berowra Creek:
Berowra Creek runs through Galston Gorge and enters the Hawkesbury River at Bar Island. The name is mentioned in Mrs Felton Mathew's journal, 1833. Previous names include Fish Pond Creek and Thornleigh Gully. The term Berowra may come from an Aboriginal word meaning 'place of many winds'.

Half Moon Bay:
is on the eastern shore of Berowra Creek immediately north of Joe Crafts Bay. It was presumably named because of its shape.

Kimmerikong Bay:
On the eastern shore of Berowra Creek upstream of Berowra Point. Presumably an Aboriginal name. Kimmerikong Creek rises near Cowan and runs north to Kimmerikong Bay and Berowra Creek.

Deep Bay:
is on the southern shore of Berowra Creek with Cunio Point at its upstream entrance. It is so named because it is a very deep bay.

Joe Craft's Bay:
On the western shore of Berowra Creek opposite Collingridge Point. Joseph Craft (1770-1839) is buried in the cemetery at Wisemans Ferry. He arrived with the Third Fleet in 1791 and after several brushes with the law acquired 60 acres at Milkmaid Reach about 1811. Around 1821 Craft and his family moved to 'Primrose Hill' in Mangrove Creek and he became known as a skilled sawyer. Joseph Jnr married Frances Douglass in 1840. There is obvious evidence of an old house site on the northern side of the bay, and one of the Crafts could have had a shack there as a base for timber getting.

Crafts Creek:
Drains into Mangrove Creek just above the weir. The name derives from Joseph Craft Snr who took up 20 acres of land here in 1821, the name of the farm being 'Primrose Hill'.

Washtub Gully:
Enters the eastern shore of Berowra Creek just upstream of the ferry crossing. The gully contains two deep rock holes filled with running spring water in which early settlers did their washing, hence the name. The name appears on an 1891 Lands Department Map.

Breakfast Creek:
The creek at the northern end of Old Berowra Road, where Grimson's Gully and Wall's Gully meet, behind Rofe Park, derived its name in the following way. Before the arrival of the railway, in the 1880s and preceding motor transport, fishermen and settlers along Berowra Creek rowed to the headwaters, moored the their boats and followed the bush track along Calna Creek to join the Peat's Ferry Road to Sydney. Leaving Berowra Creek early in the morning they would breakfast near where Wilkinson's Dairy stands, and the place became known as Breakfast Creek.

Waddells Gully:
Runs south-east from Galston to join Tunks Creek in Galston Gorge. James Waddell left Ireland and settled in the Galston area in the 1840's where his son, William Waddell (1824-1918) became a well-known orchardist.

Halls Creek:
Drains into Still Creek which then runs into Berowra Creek at Crosslands. Named after George Hall who had the first land grant in the Dural area in 1819.

Ballast Island:
A heap of rocks in Berowra Creek at the upstream entrance to Marramarra Creek; submerged at high tide. Shown as Pelican Island on a 1926 chart, also known as Pelican Reef. William Bradley's 1789 chart of Broken Bay and the lower river shows three very small islands at the location of Ballast Island so there was apparently a reef at this site. Sailing vessels dumped their ballast on this reef in order to avoid creating another navigational hazard. Vessels sailing from Sydney to the Hawkesbury carried rocks as ballast which were thrown overboard when cargo was to be loaded. A number of these ballast heaps may be seen along the shoreline almost as far upstream as Windsor.

Sunny Corner:
in Berowra Creek between Berowra Point and Peats Bight. It was named presumably because of its north-facing sunny aspect.

Britannia Rock:
On the eastern shore of Berowra Creek upstream from the ferry and opposite the Woolwash. It is said to resemble the head of Britannia.

Peach Tree Bay:
is on the eastern shore of Berowra Creek about one kilometre upstream from the Woolwash. It is said that early settlers planted peach trees there. Another explanation could be that native peach trees grew there. The native peach's fruit is toxic but the inner bark produces a strong fibre that was used by the early settlers to make rope for their boats.

Neverfail Bay:
On the western shore of Berowra Creek downstream from Collingridge Point. The name may refer to permanent spring water being available.

Merrymans Bay:
is on the western shore of Berowra Creek upstream from the Woolwash and north-west of Sams Creek. The name is said to derive from the lime-burners and shingle cutters who used to sing while they worked.

Crosslands Creek:
Enters the western shore of Berowra Creek adjacent to the ferry crossing. Shown as Dust Hole Creek on a Lands Department map of 1891.

Crossland Bay:
On the western shore of Berowra Creek immediately downstream of the ferry crossing. Also known earlier as Crosslands Bay and shown as such on an 1855 Lands Department map. The name recalls Burton Crossland, the Yorkshire born son of a boat builder employed on Berowra Creek. He was caretake of 43 acres owned by Matthew Charlton. Prior to reclamation works in the 1970s the bay was subject to considerable siltation which could have led to dust being blown about during summer low tides. Formerly known as Dust Hole Bay.

Galston Gorge/Creek:
located north of Hornsby where the Hornsby-Galston road crosses Berowra Creek. The road through Galston Gorge was constructed between 1891-1893 using men left unemployed as a result of the 1890s depression. Surveyor Ebsworth surveyed the route and put in seven hairpin bends on the steep eastern side of the gorge. The two wooden McDonald Truss bridges were built from materials that had been man-hauled down the cliffs with ropes and pulleys. The name Galston was suggested by Alexander Hutchison who came from a village of that name in Scotland. The name was officially adopted in 1887.

Bennets Bay:
Bennets Bay is on the eastern shore of Berowra Creek between Ants Nest Point and Little Bay. William Bennett established an orchard at Arcadia in the 1890s and could possibly be associated with the bay.

Doughboy Beach:
On the western shore of Berowra Creek, the first small sandy beach upstream from the entrance to Marramarra Creek. John Israel Rose and his wife Elizabeth settled here about 1860. Doughboys, sometimes called dumplings or floaters, were a boiled pudding made of dough and sometimes mixed with currants. These were popular throughout the 19th century and up to the 1950s. It is believed they were sold here by the Roses to travellers on the river.

Franks Bight:
On the eastern shore of Berowra Creek immediately downstream of the ferry crossing. Some maps show it as being the small bay a short distance upstream from the ferry where Washtub Gully enters the creek. It is not known who Frank was. Fosters Creek:
Rises near Berrilee and drains into Calabash Bay in Berowra Creek. John Foster was a prominent settler in the district in the 1870s.

Tunks Creek:
Rises near Dural and enters Berowra Creek in Galston Gorge. William Tunks, a marine who came with the First Fleet, had descendants who settled in the Mobbs Hill area. One of these is thought to have found Tunks Creek.

The Woolwash:
a location on the western shore of Berowra Creek about one kilometre up from the Berowra Waters ferry crossing. Early settlers brought wool here by boat where it was washed in spring water and then taken by boat to Pittwater or Sydney.

Still Creek:
Rises near Galston and enters Berowra Creek at Crosslands. Probably associated with John Still (1797-1867) who owned land in the Dural area.

Sam's Creek:
Rises near the Pacific Highway south of Berowra and drains westward into Berowra Creek. Said to have been named after an Aborigine of that name who lived in a nearby cave.

Pyes Creek:
Rises near West Pennant Hills and enters Berowra Creek to the west of Hornsby. James and Thomas Pye were among the first settlers in this area having been granted 60 acres in 1819. They also inherited from their emancipist father, John Pye (1769-1830), several farms in the Baulkham Hills district.

Old Mans Creek:
drains from Old Mans Valley west of Hornsby and then joins Waitara Creek which runs into Berowra Creek. Is is said to have been named by early timber getters on account of the large number of Old Man Kangaroos in the area.

Georges Creek:
Rises at Round Corner and runs into Pyes Creek, a tributary of Berowra Creek. Possibly associated with Frederick George, who in the 1920, claimed to have the largest chicken hatchery in the southern hemisphere at Thornleigh.

Grimson's Gully:
Enters Walls Gully in the upper reaches of Calna Creek, a tributary of Berowra Creek. Charles Grimson (1876-1938) bought land in the gully below Old Berowra Road which included Breakfast Creek. He served in both the Boer War and World War I, and later became a recruiting sergeant in Hornsby.

Donnybrook Bay:
On the western shore of Berowra Creek south of Coba Bay and west of Coba Point.

Possibly named after a village in Ireland just to the south of Cork (above). It is known that a number of Irish settlers took up land to the west of Berowra Creek.

Charlton Creek:
A tributary of Still Creek which enters Berowra Creek at Crosslands. Matthew Charlton bought 43 acres at what was later named Crosslands in 1856. He had been granted four acres on Marramarra Creek in 1831.

Calna Creek:
Rises in Asquith and enters Berowra Creek downstream from Crosslands. Probably an Aboriginal word.

Coba Bay:
On the western shore of Berowra Creek upstream from the entrance to Marramarra Creek. Coba Bay appears on a 1904 survey map but the name is almost certainly much older. The name is probably Aboriginal, perhaps 'cobar' which is the name of the red clay or burnt earth used to decorate the body.

Bujwa Bay:
On the eastern shore of Berowra Creek and south of Little Bay. Presumably an Aboriginal name, but its meaning, like those of several other features along the creek, is unknown. Using a Dharug dictionary, two speculative meanings are; budhawa, a night owl; or budjor, a ti-tree.

Nicholsons Creek:
A tributary of Banks Creek which runs into Calabash Bay in Berowra Creek. The name is possibly associated with a Mr Nicholson who was living in the Arcadia area in 1885.

Lyrebird Gully:
runs north-west from Mount Ku-Ring-Gai into Calna Creek and then into Berowra Creek. Presumably named because the birds were plentiful in the area.

Collingridge Point:
On the western shore of Berowra Creek opposite Joe Crafts Bay. In 1880 George Collingridge took up 88 acres along Neverfail Bay and built a house on the point, hence the name. He was a noted author and artist and a great enthusiast for the area. His writings and sketches attracted many visitors to Berowra Creek.

Cunio Point:
On the eastern shore of Berowra Creek opposite Calabash Bay and at the southern entrance to Deep Bay. The Cunio family lived Berowra Creek. A derelict stone wharf here provides evidence of their former house site.

Dust Hole Point:
On the western shore of Berowra Creek immediately downstream of Dust Hole Bay.

Flat Rock Point:
On the southern shore of Berowra Creek east of Oaky Point. Presumably named because of its shape. There is evidence of an early house site here; the low rock was easy to land on from a boat.

Rats Castle:
A very small inlet and rocky point on the western shore of Berowra Creek about one kilometre downstream from Calabash Bay. The origin of the name is not known.

Oaky Point:
Various maps give at least three locations for this name. It is generally shown as the southern entrance to Joe Crafts Bay. The name refers to the Casuarinas (She-oaks) which were, and still are, abundant along the creek. In the 19th century these were used for shingles, fence rails and fuel.

Muogamarra Point:
Muogamarra Point is at the southern entrance to Berowra Creek and on the eastern side of Peats Bight.

Bar Point:
Bar Point is opposite the entrance to Berowra Creek. The name was in use at least by 1833 when Sarah Mathew and her husband, surveyor-general Felton Mathew, camped there. Edward Kelly (not the bushranger) was granted land here in 1840.

Bar Island:
is at the entrance to Berowra Creek, known at one time as Goville Island but the origin of this is not known. Mrs Felton Mathew records camping at Bar Point in 1833 and mentions the island without naming it. A shoal extends across much of the river between the island and Bar Point and this hazard would have been familiar to early navigators of the river suggesting that the name is an old one. The island was surveyed in 1871 by Surveyor C.M. Pitt Jnr.

Grace's Shore:
The shoreline of the Hawkesbury between Peats Bight and Prickly Point. The name could recall John Grace who was granted ten acres on Marramarra Creek in 1835. A more likely possibility is that the name is associated with a later John Grace (1891-1945) and his brother Timothy who each built a house and established an orange orchard at nearby Milsons Passage around 1920.

Marramarra Creek:
rises at Dural and enters Berowra Creek nears its confluence with the Hawkesbury. Earlier maps show the name as Mother Marrs Creek which is almost certainly a corruption of the aboriginal name. Both names were in use at least by 1833 when Mrs Felton Mathew noted in her diary:
'Went up Marramarra Creek, or as it is usually called Mother Mar's Creek, a corruption probably of its native name...'. Marrar means fish, so the name could identify the place as good for catching fish.

Colah Creek:
Colah Creek rises near Dural and drains into Marramarra Creek. It was first seen on Major Mitchell's 1834 survey map. Colah is an Aboriginal word from which the name koala was derived.

Kulkah Bay:
On the southern shore of Marramarra Creek opposite Friendly Bay. An Aboriginal word which could possibly be a variant of 'carcoar' meaning frog.

Big Bay:
is located on the northern shore of Marramarra Creek. It was named on an 1831 survey map showing a fifty acre grant to Greer. John and Mary Greer were living in the area around 1860 and they are buried on Bar Island. He built the church and school on the island in the late 19th century.

Mount Shuttle:
is on the southern side of the entrance to Marramarra Creek. In 1875 Mrs Moses Shuttles was living near the confluence of Berowra Creek and the Hawkesbury. Joseph Shatiles had an early land grant at the southern entrance to Marramarra Creek. Shuttle is a variant spelling of his name.

Smugglers Ridge:
Extends to the south-west from Marramarra Creek. A track runs along the ridge towards Sydney and is said to have been used in the early days by smugglers carrying contraband bought by boat to the secluded waters of the creek.

Kulkah Bay:
On the southern shore of Marramarra Creek opposite Friendly Bay. An Aboriginal word which could possibly be a variant of 'carcoar' meaning 'frog'.

Friendly Island / Friendly Bay:
At the northern shore of Marramarra Creek in the entrance to Friendly Bay. The name could have had something to do with early encounters with Aboriginal people.

Colah Creek:
rises near Dural and drains into Marramarra Creek. It first appeared on Major Mitchell's 1834 survey map. It is thought that Colah comes from the Aboriginal word meaning anger.

Big Bay:
is located on the northern shore of Marramarra Creek. It was named on an 1831 survey map showing a fifty acre grant to Greer. John and Mary Greer lived in the area around 1860 and they are buried on Bar Island. Greer built the church and school on the island in the late 19th century.

Mount Blanche:
Mount Blanche is on the northern side of Marramarra Creek between Big Bay and Friendly Bay. It is shown as Mount Blanch on an 1831 survey map.

Back Bay:
its location in relation to Berowra Creek

Broadarrow Reach:
presumably named for the convict work station established near here by George Peat.

Eleanor Beach:
on the western shore of the Hawkesbury near its mouth and immediately upstream from Eleanor Bluffs. The name first appears on an Admiralty chart of 1866. It may be associated with the Aboriginal word 'elanora' meaning camp by the sea.

Cowan Creek / Point:
It is the same name as that of the village of Cowan. It was first recorded in 1826 when William Bean sought a land grant, but it was officially known through most of the 19th century as "The South West Arm". The origin of the name is open to conjecture. It is said to be named after a place in Scotland, however it is also said to be of Aboriginal origin, meaning 'big water'.

Cotton Tree Bay:
On the eastern shore of Cowan Creek upstream from Peach Trees and opposite Lords Bay. The cotton tree is a species of Hibiscus found in moist coastal gullies. The fibre of the bark is used for nets and fishing lines by the Aborigines. It was used by the early settlers to make cordage.

Cockle Creek:
Enters Cowan Creek at Bobbin Head. It is named as Gibberagong Creek on several maps, Gibberagong meaning "plenty of rocks". In the mid-19th Century shell beds, especially those comprised of Aboriginal middens, were harvested and burnt to produce lime which was then shipped to Sydney to be used as mortar.

Castle Bay:
On the northern side of the entrance to Yeomans Bay which is an arm of Cowan Creek, usually known as Castle Lagoon. High on the southern entrance to the bay are rocks shaped like a row of battlements; the name appear to be associated with this formation.

Govett Ridge:
Runs along the northern shore of Jerusalem Bay, an arm of Cowan Creek. Surveyor Govett conducted an extensive survey of the region around Cowan Creek and Pittwater in 1829.

Fisherman's Beach:
On the western shore of Cowan Creek opposite Halletts Beach. There are some early house sites nearby which were probably occupied by fishermen in the 19th century, which gave rise to the name.

Melveys Wharf:
Melveys Wharf is on the western shore of the Hawkesbury just upstream from Bar Island and Fishermans Point in the small bay north of that occupied by the Knox College Camp. Captain Peter Melvey bought forty acres here in 1867 and built a large stone wharf; he lived at the site between 1867 and 1905. He also ran a store and a steamer, the Marramarra. This vessel was wrecked in New Zealand in 1896 when owned by Mokau Coal Company. The bay was known earlier as Fishermans Bend, although that name appears to have been more commonly applied to the next small bay downstream.

Hallets Beach:
On the southern shore of Cowan Creek immediately upstream from the entrance to Refuge Bay. The identity of Hallet is not known.

Gunyah Point:
On the western shore of the Hawkesbury near its entrance and between Eleanor Bluffs and Green Point. An Aboriginal word meaning "a shelter or hut built of branches and woven with brush."

Duffy's Wharf:
On the eastern shore of Cowan Creek one kilometre upstream from Bobbin Head. The wharf was constructed by Peter Duffy in the mid 1850's in order to load timber. Only a few rocks remain to indicate the site which was also known as Sledgehammer Inlet because of its shape.

Devil's Hole:
In Cowan Creek just downstream from the entrance to Coal and Candle Creek.The name either relates either to a rock formation or to deep water.

Apple Tree Creek / Bay:
rises at Mt Colah and drains into Apple Tree Bay in Cowan Creek. The creek was probably named because it ran into Apple Tree Bay. Apple Tree Bay was named by Surveyor Larmer in 1832, his map showed an apple tree on the bay's northern entrance. Larmer tended to use prominent trees as points of reference.

America Bay:
America Bay is at the entrance to Cowan Creek running out of Refuge Bay, the name is commonly believed to have originated during World War 11 when U.S. troops were in the area, but the name was mentioned by Surveyor Larmer in 1832. It probably originated from the use of the bay by American whaling and sailing vessels large numbers of which worked along the New South Wales coast in the early 19th century. In 1840 there were between 200 and 300 American whalers working along the coast. The bay offered a sheltered anchorage with fresh water, and could not be seen by the eyes of officialdom at Port Jackson. Because of the trade monopoly held by the East India Company commercial vessels were not allowed to carry cargo between the U.K. and N.S.W until 1819. American ships took advantage of this and traded across the Pacific, their cargoes usually included substantial quantities of rum.

Challenger Head:
is located at the southern entrance to Cowan Creek and was named by Captain Sydney during a survey in 1868 after H.M.S. Challenger, the flagship of the Australia station from 1866 to 1871.

Whale Rock Beach:
At the northern entrance to Cowan Creek. The name derives from the large rock on the beach, which is shaped like a stranded whale.

Stingray Bay:
is on the southern shore of Smiths Creek, the first inlet from its junction with Cowan Creek. Stingrays are common in Cowan Creek and its inlets.

Smiths Creek:
Extends to the south-east from Cowan Creek upstream of Cottage Point. The 1828 census lists a Thomas Smith, aged 30, working at Pittwater as a labourer to John Farrell. The name appears on an 1894 Lands Department map.

Pinta Bay:
is on the southern shore of Jerusalem Bay, an arm of Cowan Creek. It is has also been known as Trafalgar Bay. Pinta is possibly an older name as there is a Pinta Ridge above the bay. On the other hand, there could have been someone camped there or a vessel moored, when the news arrived of Nelson's victory over the French. It could possibly be an Aboriginal origin as 'pinta' is the local Aboriginal name for a bamboo spear.

Foley's Bay:
Where Cockle Creek joins Cowan Creek at Bobbin Head. Could possibly be associated with John Foley, a wood cutter. There is also mention in the 1832 Australian Directory that 'the path from Pennant Hills reaches the sea and joins the coastal road at the farm of one Foley, a tenant of Mr Wentworth'. This almost certainly refers to David Foley who is listed in the 1828 census.

Cottage Point:
On the southern shore of Cowan Creek, at the entrance to Coal and Candle Creek. Formerly known as Terrys Point where James Terry built a holiday cottage about 1880. Also known as Gerrard Point in 1894. According to Alice Windybank her husband Edward built a holiday cottage there and rented it to visitors. It was formerly known as Green Point. On a 1974 map of the Parish of Broken Bay it is shown as "Green Point".

Fraser Brook:
Rises in Wahroonga and drains into Lovers Jump Creek, a tributary of Cockle Creek which enters Cowan Creek.

Coal and Candle Creek:
An arm of Cowan Creek extending south-east from Cottage Point. A name of uncertain origin. It is possibly a corrupt form of the name of Colin Campbell who lived in the area. It could also refer to a rock formation above the creek. The name was first recorded in 1879. It has also been suggested that a Colin Campbell was commissioned in 1900 to record Aboriginal engravings in the area, hence the name. Others consider the name derives form a peculiar rock formation said to resemble a heap of coal and an outsize candle.

Akuna Bay:
of Aboriginal origin, its meaning is unknown.

Looking Glass Bay:
is on the northern shore of Cowan Creek upstream of Baby Bay and opposite Cottage Point. Looking Glass Rock stands near the eastern entrance to the bay. Presumably named because of its shape. Also on the longest day, the rising sun illuminates the rock so that it shines like a mirror. There is a story that the local Aborigines believed that when the water rose to cover the rock the white men would leave.

Jerusalem Bay / Little Jerusalem Bay:
Arm of Cowan Creek extending westward towards the village of Cowan. An early name shown in Surveyor Larmer's notebooks for 1833. Its origins remain a mystery. It could possibly be a corruption of an Aboriginal name.

Houseboat Bay:
On the eastern shore of Cowan Creek downstream from Bobbin Head and north-east of Appletree Bay. Formerly known as Wonderland Bay after the houseboat of that name. Edward Windybank moored some of his houseboats here so the name dates from around 1900. See Waratah Bay.

Shark Rock Point:
Shark Rock Point is on the northern shore of Cowan Creek at the southern entrance to Jerusalem Bay. Cowan Creek and Broken Bay were well known for the large number of sharks found in the waterways until the 1950s.

Little Shark Rock Point:
Little Shark Rock Point is on the northern shore of Cowan Creek between two unnamed bays east of the entrance to Jerusalem Bay. It is sometimes known as Newcastle Point because of the wharf that was built there by the Newcastle and Hunter River Steamship Co. in the late 1890s. The company was granted a lease on the point on December 12, 1893 so that excursions could land during day trips from Sydney.

Swallow Rock:
a cliff on the northern shore of Cowan Creek opposite the entrance to Smiths Creek. This rocky escarpment is much favoured by nesting swallows.

Bobbin Head:
This name derives from a large rock which stood at the end of the headland, and as tidal waters rose and fell about it, it appeared to bear a likeness to a head and shoulders bobbing in the creek, hence the "bobbing head", which was later changed to Bobbin Head. The name may also have originates from the farm of Mr Hutchinson who had a farm in the area. Bobbin Head, on Cowan Creek, is part of Ku-Ring-Gai National Park, proclaimed in 1894.

Mooney Mooney Point / Bay / Creek:
of Aboriginal origin though its meaning is not known.

Peats Ferry:
this locality is around Kangaroo Point and the western end of Sandbrook Inlet. George Peat established a ferry service across the Hawkesbury between Kangaroo Point and Peats Point (now Mooney Mooney Point) in 1844. The name persisted at least until the end of the nineteenth century.

Pacific Head:
its location in relation to the Pacific Ocean.

Commodore Head:
named by Captain Sydney during a survey in 1868 after H.M.S. Challenger, the flagship of the Australia station from 1866 to 1871.

Flannel Flower Beach:
descriptive of the predominant vegtation there.

Flint and Steel Beach / Point:
In Broken Bay immediately to the east of Flint and Steel Point. Also shown as White Horse Beach. It is said there was a house there in the 1920s and the owner sometimes exercised a white horse on the beach. Flint and Steel Beach is mentioned by Surveyor Larmer in 1832 as already being named as such. The origin of the name could possibly be connected with the shape of this feature. Flint and steel when struck together produces sparks, and could be used to ignite gunpowder.

Smugglers Cove:
On the northern shore of Broken Bay between Walker Point and Pacific Head. It is shown on some maps as Smugglers Cave. Broken Bay was a favoured area for smugglers through much of the 19th century. In recent years (1994) a vessel was seized in the cove carrying the largest haul of drugs yet impounded in New South Wales.

Pittwater
Originally spelt Pitt Water, the name was bestowed by Capt. Arthur Phillip on 2nd March 1788 during his first expedition there from Sydney. The name honours William Pitt the younger (right), the then Prime Minister of England. West Head:
descriptive of its location.

Resolute Beach:
named after the paddle steamer 'Resolute' which ran aground here.

Great Mackerel Beach:
named for the abundance of fish often caught there. Has been spelt 'Mackeral'.

Currawong Beach:
named presumably for its abundance of currawong. Formerly known as Little Mackerel Beach.

Coasters Retreat:
also known as Smugglers Cove as it was from here that a group of escaped convicts smuggled illicit liquor overland through Lane Cove to Sydney. A coaster is a small ship that traditionally follows the coast close to shore.

Soldiers Point:
50 acres were granted to an Imperial Soldier, Sergeant John Andrews, who emigrated from Britain and settled there in 1842. Named Rock Head by Capt John Lort Stokes in 1851.

Portuguese Beach:
named because of Harry and Henry Gonsalves, two Portuguese fishermen and boatbuilders who ran their business here in the 1880s. Has been known as Sandy Beach and Ten Pound Beach.

Longnose Point:
descriptive

Towlers Bay:
named after Bill Toler (not Towler) who used to camp in the area.

Woody Point:
descriptive

Morning Bay:
For some time the settlement was known as Towlers Bay. Morning Bay was chosen as the locality name to avoid confusion with Taylors Point. Morning Bay was named by Captain F W Sidney when he surveyed Pittwater between 1868 and 1872.

Lovett Bay:
named after John Lovett who lived on this bay in 1836.

Elvina Bay:
thought to be named after Elvina Fitzpatrick, one of the daughters of the man who developed Scotland Island around the turn of the 20th century.

Scotland Island:
in the very early years of the last century Scotland Island was a grant to Andrew Thompson, who named it after his native land. Originally named Pitt Island on the survey by Captain F.W. Sidney (1868-72).

Church Point:
a weatherboard Methodist church once existed on the point. Formerly known as Chapel Point. Aboriginal name:
Whurra Whurra.

Maybanke Cove:
Maybanke Anderson (1845 - 1927) was a leader in the suffragette and womens' movements in Australia and an activist in the foundation of the Kindergarten Union. She and her husband owned a house opposite the cove. Whilst living there she wrote a history of Pittwater.

Winnererremy Bay:
of Aboriginal origin. Derived from the name of the surrounding locality, Winji Jimmi.

Winji Jimmi Point:
of Aboriginal origin, believed to be the name of a local Aborigine.

Heron Cove:
named due to the White Faced Heron which have been observed feeding on the mud flats in the cove.

Haystack Point:
after a flood in 1873, a haystack floating down the Hawkesbury River caught fire and attached itself to a flotilla of logs. They entered Pittwater and lodged themselves here.

Crystal Bay:
believed to be named after a vessel.

Green Point:
descriptive of the vegetation there. Formerly Lord loftus Point.

Horseshoe Cove:
its shape.

Salt Pan Point / Salt Pan Cove:
early settlers took salt from the swampland by evaporating the salt water in iron trays.

Refuge Cove:
Captain F W Sidney took refuge here from storm during a survey in 1868.

Taylors Point:
named after John Taylor, who acquired 30 acres here in 1816.

Stokes Point:
Has been known as Stripe Point. James Stokes lived on the southern side of Careel Bay between 1833 and 1841. The Stokes family operated numerous business activities here, including boat building.

Careel Bay:
Recorded as Evening Bay by Capt Stokes, 1851. The name is of Aboriginal origin but its meaning is not known.

Brown Bay:
George Brown acquired 41 acres here in 1880 and was a farmer at McCarrs Creek in 1903 and 1906.

Sand Point:
descriptive

Lion Island:
named after the similarly shaped rock of Gibraltar. The island was first called Mount Elliott by Gov Phillip as its shape reminded him of Gibraltar where General Elliott had defeated the French and Spanish fleets in 1781. In time it became known by its present name, which recalls the connection between the Rock of Gibraltar and the lion. Shaped like a crouching lion and known as the lion's rock, the Rock's imposing presence supports the legend that it is one of the two Pillars of Hercules.

Queen Victoria Head:
located on Lion Island, named for a group of rocks which, when viewed from a certain angle, are said to resemble the outline of Queen Victoria's head.

Snapperman Beach:
previously known as Chinamans beach as two Chinese men ran a fish drying business here in 1860s.

Shark Point:
early settlers saw many sharks here. Also known as Steel Point.

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