The History of Sydney


The Macquarie Era


Period covered by this chapter - 1st January 1810 to 30th November 1821

Governor of the Macquarie era
1st January, 1810 to 30th November, 1821: Colonel Lachlan Macquarie (later Major-General), Governor.

Lachlan Macquarie arrived in Sydney from England on 28th December 1809 with his wife Elizabeth, replacing Captain William Bligh who had been relieved of his duties as Governor-in-Chief of NSW in the Rum Rebellion on 26th January, 1808. A Scotsman of youthful energy and competence and a carpenter by trade, Macquarie was New South Wales longest serving Governor and made more impact on the colony than any other. From the day he stepped ashore he treated Sydney not just as a penal colony but as a settled farming community and channelled all his energies into its growth and development. His predecessors had all been naval men who, apart from Phillip, viewed the settlement as nothing more than a naval base with convicts as the non-enlisted labour force, but such was not the case. Free settlers, most of whom were convicts who had long since completed their sentences, far outnumbered the convicts, but they had continued to be treated as prisoners and second class citizens after their emancipation. They were a people struggling for survival with no hope, no civic pride and no future. Macquarie was determined to change all that. He had considerable experience of colonial life in America and India and firmly believed the success of the young colony depended on its commercial prosperity.

Macquarie was appalled at the state of shameful dilapidation of Sydney. He immediately set about restoring order, beginning with the introduction of systematic naming of streets, dropping the use of terms like row and alley. Sgt. Majors Row - it was also known as Tank Stream Row and High Street - became George Street, Governors Row became Bridge Street, Stream Row became Pitt Street. Macquarie closed off many little-used thoroughfares, and widened others (he doubled the width of Pitt Street) discouraging the common practice of cutting through the bush rather than using the road to go from one place to another. Typical of Macquaries attempts to bring order to the town was his ruling that any stock found wandering in Hyde Park would be confiscated. Another was the erection of an obelisk in Macquarie Place from which all distances within the colony of New South Wales were to be measured. Distances from Sydney to towns and cities all over Australia are still measured from the obelisk today.

The use of rum as the main currency, not to mention the grip on the colonys economy held by the military and landowners through their control of its trade, irked Macquarie. To avoid a repetition of what happened to Bligh when he had tried to break this stranglehold, Macquarie imported 40,000 Spanish dollars in 1813 for use as local currency. He set up a small mint in Bridge Street where a convict named William Henshaw counter stamped the coins and punched out their centres, creating Australias first official currency - the holey dollar and the dump. These coins were quickly circulated throughout the colony and remained in use until 1829.

In the years between the governorships of Phillip and Macquarie, relationships between the white and Aboriginal communities had fallen rapidly into decline. King had made an attempt to improve relations but he was not in the post long enough for his efforts to have had a lasting effect. Macquarie made genuine moves to help the Aborigines who, by the time he came to office, had very much become downtrodden outcasts dwelling on the outskirts of the colony who had been left to fend for themselves. Macquaries efforts to bring reconciliation to the two communities were noble, in spite of being viewed today by many as nothing more than an attempt to Europeanise the natives and purge them of their Aboriginality. But in his day, given the commonly held belief that Aborigines were savages of a lower intelligence than the whites, his treatment of them was very progressive.

It was Macquarie who created Australias first Aboriginal reserve. Located at Wooloomooloo, it was run by the Aboriginal community who lived there. Whites were only permitted to enter it by invitation of its residents. The reserve was commonly known as Blacktown in spite of Macquarie having named it Hemnrietta Town, after Mrs Macquarie who was instrumental in ita establishment. After Macquaries departure, Gov. Darling, believing the location of an Aboriginal reserve so close to the white community was inappropriate, shifted it to La Perouse and subdivided the land which the reserve occupied for the development of upper class residences.

Macquarie also gave a large portion of land at Middle Head to a North Shore Aboriginal clan. He attempted to help them assimilate into the Sydney community by teaching them about farming and agriculture but to no avail. The Aborigines were unable to adapt to the ways of the white man and drifted away from Middle Head to return to their tribal lands and traditional way of life. Macquaries term of office coincided with a substantial increase in the number of convicts sent to the colony. Whenever a new shipment of convicts arrived he would head for the wharves where he would personally greet them, take stock of who had arrived and what skills they had, and hand pick for government service any who he believed had particular skills required to fulfill his special projects. They became the workforce he used to create his Sydney and bring about the civic pride the colonists so desperately lacked. He utilised the new arrivals in ambitious public works programmes which not only helped to absorb their numbers, but allowed him to extend the ticket-of-leave system in which convicts were hired out to settlers to assist them in their trades and businesses. He encouraged the reformation of convicts by offering emancipation for good behaviour and employed many of them in positions of authority.

Macquaries public works programmes included enlarging and improving the road system; the instigation of a grid pattern of streets for the developing southern end of Sydney town; the construction of a number of civic buildings which included the Hyde Park Barracks, The Rum Hospital, The Windsor Courthouse and The South Head lighthouse; the establishment of a number of country towns - Castlereagh, Richmond, Wilberforce, Pitt Town and Windsor, Liverpool, Campbelltown and Bathurst - and the development of the Botanical Gardens, The Domain and Hyde Park. The latter, located alongside his planned town square and convict barracks, was part of a large tract of land earmarked by Phillip in 1788 for public recreation. Macquarie encouraged the development of a 10 furlong racetrack (the parks circular shape at its northern end is a reminder of this former activity) and it was here that, by accident, the tradition in NSW and Queensland of racing in a clockwise direction commenced. Macquarie opened Sydneys first ever Spring Horse Racing Carnival, held at the newly developed Hyde Park Race Track in October 1810. A young William Charles Wentworth, the son of Dr. DArcy Wentworth who would later work at the Rum Hospital to be built nearby a few years later, thrilled spectators with his winning ride in the saddle of the bay gelding, Gig. On that occasion, a friendship was forged between them. Three years on, the young Wentworth was a member of the first party to cross the Blue Mountains.

After Macquaries return to London it was Wentworth who followed him to clear his name after it had been muddied. The race of 1810 was the first of many sporting events that would be held in Hyde Park over the years. Horse racing continued until the late 1820s, by which time the park had become a regular venue for fairs, knuckle fighting, boxing and wrestling. A cricket field was created within its boundaries in the 1830s and continued in use until its transfer to the Domain in 1862, the year in which the first cricket match between England and New South Wales took place there. Hyde Park became the location for Sydneys first zoo in 1849 and featured elephants, bears and a tiger in its collection.

One of Macquarie's keenest supporters was his wife Elizabeth who was actively involved in her husbands public works programmes and was responsible for the selection of many of the designs of her husbands buildings which she lifted from a collection of building design books she brought with her. Though his drive and ambition was admired by the emancipists who gave him almost godlike status, Macquarie encountered much opposition, particularly among the wealthier colonists. The military personnel who in the early days had been employed to oversee the convicts, resented their former Òslaves being given equal rights and that Macquarie kept the best of the new arrivals for public service duties. To them Macquaries attempts to turn the penal settlement into a modern town was nothing more than an extravagant waste of public resources. His domineering, stubborn attitude did nothing to win their friendship or support and it was only a matter of time before a major confrontation would bring their differences of opinion to a head.

His attitude towards his superiors in England reflected a similar arrogance, though he was careful to hide it from them so as to maintain their support. Macquarie knew what he wanted and wasnt afraid to bend the rules or deliberately misinterpret his instructions from the British Government when they refused his requests. Most such occasions involved either the spending of public money or making Sydney more like a town and less like a goal. For example, when his request to start a bank was refused, he went ahead with the plan anyway, but rather than establish it with government funds, he did it by public subscription, he and his wife being two of the six founding shareholders. Six months after it was established, he wrote to his superiors in England, advising them that the free settlers had started their own bank and that as it was running so successfully, it would be unwise for the Government not to be involved as it might precipitate another Rum Rebellion.

Macquarie's governorship, along with his health, went into a noticeable decline following the arrival of Jeffrey Hart Bent, the judge of Macquaries newly-established Supreme Court, which opened for business on 28th July 1814. Both men saw themselves as the ultimate mouthpiece of law and authority in the colony and their constant clashes began not only to erode Macquaries position of authority but precipitated the unification of Macquaries enemies and the consolidation of support for his removal. So strong did the division in the community towards him grow, a number of gentry who had friends in English political circles began to use their influence against him, resulting in Macquarie having to face a commission of enquiry into his administration headed by Commissioner John T. Bigge. Whilst there is no concrete evidence that he was paid by the wealthy free men of the colony to get rid of Macquarie, Bigge's report was clearly greatly influenced by them. It was a scathing report that was neither unbiased or fair and contained many inaccuracies and exaggerations which could almost be described as lies. As a result of Bigges report, Macquarie was ordered to curtail many of his public works programmes. The frustration and pressure on Macquarie led to recurring bouts of illness. He made three requests to leave Sydney, his resignation finally being accepted in 1822.

Macquarie's attempt to clear his name when he returned to England largely fell on deaf ears. Bigges report had already been published and accepted as fact, Macquarie's report was not widely circulated and he had to fight for the pension he so richly deserved. He died in relative poverty at 49 Duke Street, St. James, London, on 1 July 1824, but not after some justice had been done. William Charles Wentworth was so disturbed by the way Macquarie had been treated, he followed Macquarie to England where he used his considerable influence to clear Macquaries name and show how biased and inaccurate Bigge's report had been. The day before he died, Macquarie was visited by Wentworth who told him he had been successful in getting the British Government to endorse a cause Macquarie had championed for so long - the granting of full rights to all emancipists throughout the British Empire.

Wentworth returned to Sydney immediately, bringing news of Macquaries death. So saddened were the common folk, a day of mourning was proclaimed and plans were formulated to build a memorial to Macquarie to be financed by public subscription. Though the memorial was never built, time would show that Sydney did not need a monument to keep the memory of Lachlan Macquarie alive. Sydney itself would become a memorial to its most loved and respected Colonial Governor. His influence is still visible in the bustling streets of what was upon his arrival little more than a bush camp, but which he singlehandedly had nurtured into a thriving community. Of all the early Governors of New South Wales, none left so indelible mark upon the place and he is totally forgiven for his enthusiasm in naming so many places after himself. During his 11 years in Sydney, he had overseen 256 items of construction, many of which remain today. They included 67 public buildings in Sydney town, 20 at Parramatta, 15 at Windsor and 12 at Windsor, not to mention those in Bathurst and Hobart. He set in motion the creation of the Argyle Cut in The Rocks (though work did not commence until 1843).

He oversaw the building of 14 public roads, the development of wharves on Cockle Bay, the development of shipbuilding yards on Sydney Cove, the installation of the first steam driven mill and the opening of Australia's first bank. Macquarie also played a major role in the development of Hobart. During his governorship, the population of Sydney grew from 11,590 to 38,798. Animal numbers grew also, the total sheep flock rising from 26,000 to around 290,000. Cattle increased from 12,442 head to 109,939 and pigs increased from 9,544 to 33,906. The area of land under agriculture rose from 3,030 ha to 13,720 ha.

Macquarie summarised his contribution towards the development of Sydney in his report to Earl Bathurst, London, dated 27 July 1822, thus: I found the colony barely emerging from infantile imbecility, and suffering from various privations and disabilities; the country impenetrable from beyond 40 miles of Sydney ... the few road sand bridges, formerly constructions, rendered almost impassable ... I left it ... reaping incalculable advantages from my extensive and important discoveries in all directions. This change may indeed by ascribed in part to the natural operation of time and events on individual enterprise. How far it may be attributed to matters originating with myself, ... and my zeal and judgment in giving effect to my instructions, I humbly submit to His Majesty and His Ministers.



ROADS AND BRIDGES

It was during Macquarie's term of office that Sydney's system of major roads that are still in use today was put into place. Parramatta Road had already been established, but roads to other parts of the colony had not been clearly defined and many were little more than tracks through the bush. Macquaries first road building work was South Head Road (part of which is now Oxford Street) which linked Sydney to the pilot station and settlement at Watsons Bay, replacing a rough track cut through the bush by the colonial surgeon John Harris in 1803. Built by 21 men of the 73rd Regiment, it was the first of many roads built by Macquarie to be financed by public subscription. The Governor contended that, as local residents would be the only beneficiaries from the construction of good roads in their districts, they should be preparedvto assist in the cost of their implementation. Completion of the road saw further land grants in the area: Bondi in 1810; Rose Bay in 1812; Double Bay in 1821. These grants led to the creation of New South Head Road which took a shorter route, but its construction was not commenced until 1831 and completed some four years later.

Having surveyed the site of the town of Liverpool in the year previous, Macquarie began work on a road to the new town in April 1813. The contract for the building of the Liverpool Road was given to William Roberts, an illiterate ex-convict who had impressed Macquarie when supervising road restoration works on George and Bridge Streets. Liverpool Road was 24 kilometres in length and followed a number of Aboriginal paths. It required the building of 27 bridges along the way and was opened to traffic on 22 February 1814. So happy was Macquarie with Roberts work, he was employed to extend the Sydney to Parramatta road to Windsor (completed April 1814), to build a road from Liverpool to Parramatta (Woodville Road) as well as the Airds, Bringelly, Minto and Cowpasture Roads and their associated 28 bridges.

It was Macquarie's drive to discover what lay on the other side of the Blue Mountains that led to the first colonial crossing in 1813 by Blaxland, Lawson and Wentworth. He wasted no time in building a road along the route taken by the pioneers, sending a crew to complete the task hot on the heels of the trailblazers. Nepean district builder William Cox was placed in charge of its construction, which was commissioned in April 1815. The opening of the section from Emu Ford to Mt York. Cox saw the completion of 202km of road in just six months using only 60 convict workers and overseers.

Major George Druitt of the 48th Regiment was appointed Inspector of Government Public Works in December 1817. At the end of his term, Druitt recorded that with a workforce of 3,117 men, he had completed the following:
Sydney to Macquarie Tower, South Island (Bear Island, La Perouse) - 13 kilometres, 6 bridges
Sydney to Waterloo Mill - Botany Bay Road - 3.3 kilometres, 6 bridges
Sydney to Parramatta - Parramatta Road - 24 kilometres, 14 bridges
Parramatta to Liverpool - Woodville Road - 8 kilometres, 8 bridges
Parramatta to Windsor - Old Windsor Road - 32 kilometres, 70 bridges (extended as far as St. Albans)
Campbelltown to Appin - Appin Road - 5 kilometres, 5 bridges
Sydney to Liverpool - Liverpool Road - 32 kilometres, 27 bridges
Sydney to South Head - South Head Road (Oxford Street) - 8 kilometres, 4 kilometres

FERRIES ON THE HARBOUR



Billy Blue

In 1807, a former convict named Billy Blue had been appointed Sydneys first and only Waterman, a position which gave him exclusive rights to operate a ferry service on the harbour. Of Jamaican descent, Blue was transported to NSW in 1807 for stealing a bag of sugar. After emancipation, he was granted 80 acres on Blues Point (then known as Murdering Point), from which he operated a ferry service to Millers Point. A colourful, eccentric character, he liked to dress in outlandish military uniforms which earned him the nickname of the Old Commodore of the Fleet by Gov. Macquarie. At its peak, his business operated 11 boats and employed Billy, his son and three convicts. He died age 82. Blues Point and the Commodore Hotel, built by his descendants, recall this earlier pioneer of boat travel on Sydney Harbour.
Lavender Bay recalls George Lavender, an early resident of the lower north shore who, like his father-in-law, Billy Blue, became a boatman, and operated a ferry service across the harbour in the 1830s and 40s. During the Macquarie years, the main customers of the lower north shore ferry service were timbergetters whose activities centred around a government saw-pit established in 1813 on the Lane Cove River. Logging was the major activity in the area during the first half of the 19th century as it was originally covered with huge blue gum forests.

Harbour Bridge

Ever since the establishment of the colony of Sydney, its occupants have dreamed of a bridge or a series of bridges to connect the north and south shores. The diary of First Fleeter William Dawes records that even as he was establishing his observatory on the point which bears his name, Dawes gazed across the harbour towards the north shore in February 1788 and realised that one day a bridge would have to span the harbour, perhaps at a point such as this. What would his reaction be if he could come back today and see the realisation of his dream - The Sydney Harbour Bridge? So convinced was he of the future need for such a bridge, he included a proposal for one in the notes which accompanied his first survey of the town of Sydney.

Governor Macquarie had similar ideas and in 1817 he had Colonial Architect Francis Greenway come up with ways of building a bridge from Dawes Point to Milsons Point. Greenway apparently did this, though records of his suggestions have not survived. As both the finance and the technology to complete such a project were in extreme short supply, nothing eventuated and the idea was left for future generations to bring to fruition.

IN DEFENCE OF SYDNEY


Fort Macquarie

Though Macquarie, like all the Governors before him, was a military man, there is little evidence to suggest he made any major contribution towards the defence of Sydney other than upgrading the fort on Dawes Point and building Fort Macquarie on Bennelong Point which replaced a small fort established by First Fleeter William Dawes in 1788. Francis Greenway, Macquaries buddy in arms when it came to the erection of public buildings in Sydney, designed the fort which came into use in January 1821, just a short while before Macquaries departure from NSW.

Fort Macquarie was a large, impressive structure built of stone hewn from an outcrop of rock near the construction site. So much stone was required for the project, a sheer vertical rock face was left at the quarry site on completion. The rock face became known as the Tarpeian Rock, a classical allusion to the precipitous Capiotoline Hill in Rome from which, in the time of the Caesars, criminals were hurled to their deaths. By the turn of the 20th century, Fort Macquarie had outlived its usefulness. In 1902, it was replaced by the Fort Macquarie Tram Depot, a terminus and workshops for the Belmore to Circular Quay electric tram service which came down Castlereagh and Bligh Streets.

BUILDINGS OF THE MACQUARIE ERA

By the time of the arrival of Gov. Macquarie, most if not all the makeshift humpies built in 1788 had been replaced by more substantial yet still rather spartan dwellings and business houses. This second generation of buildings, though more solid than the first, were still rudimentary in construction and design. Only a handful of stone cottages in outlying districts survive from this era. The high standards set by Macquarie in the public buildings he had erected were the catalyst for new standards in private dwellings and commercial building construction utilising the excellent sandstone that was in plenteous supply throughout the Sydney basin.

Macquarie's enthusiasm attracted a number of architects to come forward, including Francis Howard Greenway (right), a convict transported for forgery who came with a recommendation of none other than Gov. Phillip. He had arrived in 1814 in the same year as two other architects - John Watts and Henry Kitchen. Macquarie tried all three - Watts supervised the additions to Old Government House at Parramatta and Kitchen was involved in the construction of the Parramatta Weir. Greenway was found to be by far the best, his family in Bristol having been quarry men, stonemasons and builders for many generations. Had it not been for Greenways overbearing, pushy manner, which for some reason appealed to Macquarie and sparked a strong working relationship between them, Greenway would have remained Colonial Architect for much longer than the nine years he served. Had this happened he would have left behind an even greater legacy of architectural work than he did. His public buildings have all survived though none of the residences he designed after his dismissal from official duties remain.

POPULAR ARCHITECTURAL STYLES

Colonial Georgian

Whilst John Harris's Experiment Farm at Parramatta was typical of the simple farmhouses that would proliferate the colony during the first five decades, the streetscapes of Sydney Town and Parramatta around the turn of the 19th century were taking on a different look. The new buildings reflected the architectural styles of Europe being introduced by new arrivals from Mother England who brought with them the skills in building design and construction that the colony so desperately needed.

The predominant style of the day was Georgian, which refers to the reigns of the four kings of England named George between the years 1714-1830, the period in which this style flourished. Sydney and Hobart are where most of Australias surviving Georgian architecture can be observed as few of Australias other capital cities had been founded during the Georgian era and those which had were still in their infancy.

Examples:
NSW Parliament House, Macquarie Street, Sydney (1814)
The Mint Museum, Macquarie Street, Sydney (1814)
Cadmans Cottage, George Street, Sydney (1816; Francis Greenway?)
Kirkham Stables, Kirkham Lane, Narellan (1816)
Rouse Hill House, Windsor Rd, Rouse Hill (1818)
Former Female Orphans School, Rydalmere Ho
spital, Rydalmere (1818)
Hyde Park Barracks, Macquarie St, Sydney (1819; Francis Greenway)
NSW Supreme Court Building, Elizabeth Street, Sydney (1819; Francis Greenway)
Juniper Hall, 250 Oxford Street, Paddington (1820 - 22)
St James Church, 179 King Street, Sydney (1822; Francis Greenway)
Windsor Courthouse, Court Street, Windsor (1822; Francis Greenway)


Judge's House

Regency

An expression of the Georgian style which came to signify the refined taste of the British upper classes. The Regency period - during which the Prince of Wales ruled as regent during his fathers madness - extended from 1811 to 1820, but the style was popular throughout the first four decades of the 19th century.
Characterisics:
Added a touch of elegance to the Georgian style with the use of gentle projections and recessions, Porticos, balconies, and stucco (plaster applied to outside walls) often painted to look like stone. Timber, wrought iron and cast iron decoration was occasionally used, as were slate and sheet metal roof tiles, the latter being a product of the industrial revolution.
Examples:
National Trust Centre, Observatory Hill, Sydney (1815; J.C. Watts)
St Matthews Church, Greenway Crescent, Windsor (1820; Francis Greenway)


SURVIVING RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS


Cadmans Cottage

1816 - Cadmans Cottage, George Street, The Rocks

The oldest surviving residence in the City of Sydney, this four-room sandstone cottage was built to house the Governors boat crew and is very much a basic, no-frills colonial cottage. In 1827, it became the home of the Governor Boats Superintendent, John Cadman, a former convict, after whom it is named. Originally a single storey house, the second storey was added during the 1850s. The stone wall at the rear of the cottage below George Street was erected at the same time as the cottage.




1820-22 - Juniper Hall, 250 Oxford Street, Paddington

The first residence in the area now known as Paddington, this fine example of Colonial Georgian architecture was the home of Robert Cooper, an emancipists who made his fortune as a gin distiller. Believed to be the largest residence ever built in the district (it needed to be large as Cooper had 28 children), it was saved from demolition in the 1980s and is now a restored to its former glory and used as offices. Juniper Hall was built some 20 years before the Victoria Barracks, the construction of which was the catalyst to the area being opened up as a working class residential area.



1821-22 - The Judges House, 312 Kent Street, Sydney

The cottage was designed and built by William Harper, a Scottish migrant who worked as an Assistant Surveyor. Ill health and eventual blindness caused him to retire when still young and his home was rented to Supreme Court Judge Justice James Dowling (after whom Dowling Street was named) at an annual rental of 200 pounds. The house once enjoyed 'delightful and healthful views of Darling Harbour'. It was described as having Ôa large garden at the back, the property being surrounded by paddocks.

PUBLIC AND COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS


Parliament House

1811 - 1816 - Parliament House, Macquarie Street, Sydney

The seat of government of New South Wales since 1829, the central section of Parliament House was built between 1811 and 1814 as part of the original Sydney Hospital. Its designer is unknown, but the concept most likely came from a pattern book of elegant home designs belonging to Governor Macquaries wife, Elizabeth. The entrepreneurs who paid for and supervised its construction in exchange for the right to import rum into the colony for 3 years were Alexander Riley, Garnham Blaxcell and D'Arcy Wentworth. All the government had to supply were eighty oxen (for slaughter), twenty draught bullocks and twenty convict labourers. Macquarie wrote glowingly of his scheme in his request to the Colonial Secretary, Lord Liverpool, for permission to proceed with the project. Liverpool turned it down, but by the time news of his decision reached Sydney, Macquarie had made sure construction was sufficiently advanced that it had passed the point of no return.

Unfortunately, the financiers of the hospital had little building experience, and the buildings were so badly made, it led Macquarie to vow never again to finance a public building in this manner again. When it was handed over on completion, Macquarie noticed it was two feet lower than marked on the plan so he made the contractors provide labour for other public works to the value of the work not done on the Hospital befored paying them out. The builders had also used stone-faaced rubble rather than solid stone and the roof framing design was faulty. When Francis Greenway arrived in Sydney in 1816, Macquarie tested his skills by employing him to rectify the faults. Greenway so impressed Macquarie, he employed him as full time Colonial Architect.

In 1829 Governor Darling appropriated the northern wing of the hospital to accommodate the Legislative and Executive Councils. The southern wing of the building, which features a cast-iron facade, is a later addition. Prefabricated in England, it was originally destined for the Goldfields near Bathurst as a chapel, however on its arrival in Sydney, it was reassigned as the new chamber for the Legislative Council. The packing cases in which the prefabricated kit arrived were used to line the chamber, the rough timber is still on view today.

1811 - 1816, 1879 - 1894 - Sydney Hospital, Macquarie Street, Sydney

Originally known as the Rum Hospital because its builders were allowed to export rum for resale, the Sydney Hospital once occupied a number of buildings on this sight. The northern wing is now Parliament House, the Southern wing is occupied by the Sydney Mint Museum. By the 1870s, the central section, which had been erected on poor foundations, was in danger of collapse and had to be demolished. It was replaced by new buildings which continue to function as a hospital today. These newer buildings are of Classic Revival style and the one which fronts onto Macquarie Street boast floral stained-glass windows and a Baroque staircase in the entrance hall. These fine specimens of Victorian architecture were created out of Pyrmont sandstone and feature arcaded verandahs with ornate balustrading. One of two domed former gatehouses has functioned as a tiny corner store.



1811 - 1816 - Sydney Mint Museum, Macquarie Street, Sydney

The Sydney Mint took over the south wing of the Rum Hospital in 1854 following the discovery of gold and until 1927 all gold found in New South Wales was turned into bullion and currency here. After decades of use and misuse as everything from Government offices to a car park, this building, a twin to Government House a few doors away, was restored and in 1982, opened as a branch of the Powerhouse Museum. Restoration included a replica of the buildings original wooden roof made of she-oak (caesarean) shingles.



1815 (?) - Shipwrights Arms, 75 Windmill Street, Millers Point

Though no records exist to verify the exact year of its construction, this two storey brick house dates from the Macquarie period as it was built as a residence for a free settler who arrived in the colony in 1815. The sandstone used for its foundations came from the nearby Kent Street Quarry which was a major source of sandstone for building constructed in the western end of Sydney during the Macquarie era. Its identity as one of five pubs in The Rocks to be called Shipwrights Arms had been lost until its restoration in 1968 when countless layers of paint were removed to reveal its former use. John Clarke, its first licencee, operated the pub between 1833 and 1837.


Sydney Conservatorium of Music

1818-21 - Sydney Conservatorium of Music - Macquarie Street, Sydney

A building of striking appearance to the design of Colonial Architect Francis Greenway, the original castellated Colonial Gothic structure which now forms part of the present day complex was the centrepiece of Commissioner Bigges accusations of extravagance by Gov. Lachlan Macquarie. Given that it was merely a stables and servants quarters for a new Government House which had yet to be built, it is not surprising that Greenway and Macquarie were bitterly criticised by both Bigge and the non convict population of Sydney town. The furor over Greenways Folly as it became known led to a 25 year delay in the construction of Government House. Between 1908 and 1915, the stables underwent extensive modifications, with a concert hall being built in place of the open central courtyard in its transformation into the Sydney Conservatorium of Music. Further extensive additions which took place a few years ago also retained the original buildings appearance.

1818 - Lancer Barracks, 2 Smith Street Parramatta

Australias oldest continuously used military establishment. Built by Gov. Macquarie, two of the three original buildings remain - the two storey sandstone brick accommodation block which housed 100 British redcoats until they were recalled in the 1860s, and the single storey officers quarters. The other buildings on site chart the history of the Barracks since the formation of a troop of Lancers at the site by George Burns (founder of Burns Philp) in 1891 to the present day. Linden House Museum displays artefacts, photographs and documents covering the history of the Royal New South Wales Lancers (from 1935), the Australian Light Horse and the Armoured Corps, including a collection of operational armoured vehicles.


Hyde Park Barracks

1819 - Hyde Park Barracks, Macquarie Street

Centrally located opposite Macquaries town square and the green fields of Hyde Park, this Georgian style building was designed by Colonial Architect Francis Greenway at the request of Governor Lachlan Macquarie. Considered to be Greenways masterpiece, it was constructed as a home for the 600 convicts who built it. So pleased was Macquarie with the building, he granted Greenway a full pardon in appreciation for his efforts. The virtue of the design lives in its simplicity and in the excellence of the proportions, which give the building an impression of size beyond its actual dimensions. Greenway used his favourite medium, soft red sandstock bricks, set in lime mortar for the main building, and built the walls and gate piers of stone. Of the original layout of the Barracks within its compound, only the central building, the stone gate piers and a solitary cell block remain.

Completed and opened in June 1819, it was home to 600 men but the number swelled to 1,000 within 12 months and the practice of allowing convicts to stay outside the compound became a much sought privilege. After the cessation of transportation in the 1850s, the building was put to a variety of uses, including accommodation for Irish orphans and single female immigrants, law courts and legal offices. Today it is a museum which tells the storey of the building and the convicts to whom it was home. A clock dating from 1817 is mounted on the buildings facade. It is believed to be Australias oldest public clock and was placed their by colonial clockmaker John Oatley, after whom the Sydney suburb was named.


St James Church

1819 - St James Church, 179 King Street, Sydney

In July 1813, Governor Macquarie suggested that the magistrates of the colony should meet to start a public subscription for the building of "a respectable court house and town shall under the one roof." He opened the appeal with a gift of £500 from colonial funds and a personal gift of £60. The target of the appeal was £5,000 to build a "plain substantial building of suitable size and respectable exterior appearance, without aiming at the expensive ornaments of architecture. 4 months later the appeal was abandoned through lack of community interest and Macquarie decided unwillingly that the court house would have to be built with convict labour. He engaged Australia's first architect D. D. Mathew to produce a design for the building, a two-storey structure with two wings and a Doric portico. Macquarie sent the finished plans to London to Earl Bathurst, the Secretary of State for the Colonies, together with a request for funds, but the funds and a go-ahead for the project were denied.

Six years later, on 7th October, 1819, Macquarie set the foundation stone of "a large and commodious court house' designed by Greenway who had been transported to Australia for forgery. Commissioner Bigge was a guest at the ceremony and seemed to approve of the court house project, but by February, 1820, Bigge had changed his mind and demanded that the court house be converted into a church. Macquarie had little choice but to agree. The reason for Bigge's change of mind may be found in the appointment, three years later, of his brother-in-law, Mr T. H. Scott, a wine merchant, as Archdeacon of Sydney, first incumbent of the new church dedicated to St James. Macquarie had planned to build a cathedral in George Street but Bigge ruled that due to the lack of funds, Greenway's half build courthouse should become the church instead. Greenway performed the task satisfactorily, but was never happy about the change and constantly sniped at Bigge over his decision.

Consecrated on 11th February, 1824 by the infamous Òflogging parson, Samuel Marsden, it is Australias oldest church, having been a place of worship since the first service was held on 6th January 1822. Over the years numerous alterations have been made, the latest being the addition of a Childrens Chapel in 1930. The original spire, which was covered in copper sheets stamped in broad arrows to avoid theft, was erected in 1824. Its replacement, with a slate roof and cross, was constructed in 1894 to a design by Varney Parkes, the architect son of Sir Henry Parkes, who built the semi-circular sanctuary at the time. Colonial Architect Edmund Blackett used the stone vaulted crypt as his office while designing St Andrews Cathedral. John Verge added the classical stone porch and vestry in 1832. Marble tablets recall members of Sydneys 19th Century society and the violent deaths many of them faced.

For all its additions and modifications St. James Church is still a splendid example of its architectural style and one of old Sydneys prized buildings. A reason for this could well be that the church is closely linked visually to the Hyde Park Barracks opposite and the Supreme Court Building alongside it. The three buildings were planned that way as part of Governor Macquaries master plan for a civic centre that has today become Queens Square. The three buildings are on the same axis, each has brick walls divided into bays by long rectangular brick columns (palisters). At ground level, arched windows are set in each brick bay within an arched panel and the recessed arches of brick over the side wall windows are echoed in the windows and doors of the two other buildings. All use warm salmon-coloured sandstock bricks bricks called samels which were fired in small kilns at Brickfield Hill near the Haymarket. Unfortunately, the Supreme Court building has undergone so any changes and additions, so of the design features which once aligned it with St James Church and Hyde Park Barracks have disappeared, however James Burnett was careful to create a unified facade along king Street when he added the court buildings brick and stucco colonnade in 1868.


Supreme Court Building

1820 - 1828. Supreme Court Building, Elizabeth Street

On 20th March, 1820, Macquarie laid a foundation stone for a building to be called the Georgian Public School, an institution to care for neglected children. However, Bigge again intervened, insisting it must become a court house. Greenway protested "so far as he could with delicacy", but to no avail. Work proceeded on the site adjacent to the western end of St James' Church. However the building was still incomplete when Macquarie left the colony in December, 1821. Acting Colonial Engineer, Major Druitt, over-anxious to please with the rate of progress on the court house, directed the roof to be constructed before all the necessary supporting pillars and braces were in place. Greenway protested to Governor Sir Thomas Brisbane, Macquarie's successor, but in vain. Thereafter Greenway's relations with officialdom continued to deteriorate until his dismissal from the Government service in November, 1822. After his dismissal, Greenway made strong criticism of the manner in which work on the court house continued under the direction of the builder, Mr Gough. In particular, he criticised the deletion of a facade of Doric columns, arrangements for supporting the hastily constructed roof and the subdivision into two courtrooms of the large courtroom on the ground floor. Apart from the circular staircase, the Doric portico at the western end of the building (later demolished) window treatment and certain recessed wall panels, little survived of Greenway's original design.

Progress on the building was slow. It was not until August, 1827, that Governor Darling, Brisbane's successor, issued a proclamation ordering that the west wing of the building be handed over to the judges of the Supreme Court. Finally, in September, 1827, Chief Justice Forbes and Mr Justice John Stephen moved in and began furnishing the west wing while the builders continued work on the east. At the end of August, 1828, the entire building was handed over to the court so that the judges could dictate details of the internal arrangements. Greenway's Doric colonnade, planned to run between the two wings, was never built leaving the circular staircase isolated in an open courtyard and exposed to the weather. For the next few years alarmed was expressed at the condition of building: it became necessary to brace the roof with additional poles and columns. Serious cracks in the dividing walls led to fears they would collapse. Lack of adequate ventilation, heating and cooling, and the intrusion of noise also were the causes of serious and prolonged complaints from all users of the building. The fireplaces in the courtroom smoked so badly it could not be used when the wind blew from certain quarters.

The old Banco Court was created in the 1840s which resulted in the removal of the western portico and the creation of a new entry from King Street which became the main entrance, previously intended to be on the Hyde Park side. In 1864, a request to the Government for a new courthouse was refused, so the Government embarked on patchwork additions to the old building as its solution to the overcrowding problem. By 1868, the King Street arcade had been added, the footpath flagged, major repairs to the roof carried out and a parapet built at the roof line. In December 1895, the foundations were laid for a new Banco Court on the St James Road frontage and the building was ready for occupation in February the following year. The building was of two stories, the courtroom, chambers and consulting rooms on the lower floor and more chambers on the upper.



1821 - Watchtower, La Perouse

An octagonal building complete with firing slots in the walls that have never been used. It was constructed of local a sandstone under instructions from Gov. Macquarie as a place from which coastguards could keep a lookout for smugglers and stray vessels in the Botany Bay area. The watchtower was the last building to be erected by Macquarie in New South Wales. It stands near the northern entrance to Botany Bay on the promentary where in January 1788, a day after the arrival of the First Fleet, French explorer and scientist La Perouse brought his two ships to anchor for a two month sojourn. His visit is marked by a monument located near the grave of Pere (Father) L.C. Receveur, a Franciscan Monk travelling as a scientist aboard L'Astrolabe, who died here from spear wounds received in Bougainville. He was the first Frenchman to die and be buried on Australian soil.

SURVIVING PUBLIC UTILITIES



1810 - Macquaries Wall, Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney

This 290m long piece of history is all that remains of a wall built by convicts in 1810. It was one of the first building projects undertaken by Governor Macquarie after taking up his post as Governor and one of a number of 3 metre high walls he built. Within weeks of his arrival, Macquarie set aside the land surrounding Farm Cove as a domain for the people of Sydney and ordered the construction of the wall - from Farm Cove to Wooloomooloo Bay - to divide the domain in two halves, one for the convicts and another for the towns Òrespectable Class of Inhabitants. The botanic Gardens were created six years later around a series of pathways which criss-crossed the domain and emanated from a spot where Captain Arthur Philip had established the colonys first market garden ln in 1788. Mrs Macquarie is said to have laid out the pathways.


Man O'War Steps

1810-20 - Man O'War Steps, Farm Cove Crescent, Sydney

The steps are the only known remains harbour works from the Macquarie era still in existence in Sydney Harbour. They are in what appears to be their original configuration, and still in daily use. They recall a bygone era when Navy ships anchored in Farm Cove, and the soldiers came ashore to Fort Macquarie, Sydneys main military base which once stood where the Opera House is today. The Man O'War Steps were the embarking and disembarking point for this function for over a century. The original construction dating from 1810-20 became part of Fort Macquarie (Governor Macquarie laid the foundation stone of the fort on 17 December, 1817) and has been improved and /or replaced over subsequent years. The majority of the existing structure appears to have been put in place as part of Farm Cove seawall constructed in the 1860s.

Over the years, wooden wharves and pontoons were added to the stone jetty, and a substantial wooden shed built at the shore end for naval purposes. In the 1850s, female immigrants were landed at Man O'War Steps and marched through the Gardens and the Domain to their barracks." Contemporary accounts describe it as "small landing place' of wooden construction of approximately the same configuration as the existing jetty. It enclosed a small beach and protected boat harbour, which became known temporarily as "Port Lachlan," after Macquarie's son Lachlan. Gradually the jetty was repaired and improved, and ceased to be reserved for the exclusive use of the Governor. By 1850, it was referred to by the Admiralty as a 'stone pier,' and stated to be in use for watering shipping anchored nearby. These were mainly warships , hence the name by which the jetty and steps are now known - although it is not known when its present name came into usage.

For the best part of 120 years, Naval sections of the Armed Forces and the State Government were in disagreement as to whose responsibility maintenance of the Man O'War Step were. The Maritime Services Board of NSW believed was the Navys, citing a government General Order of 1812 to support this, however the Navy disagreed. The matter was finally resolved in 1971 at a time when the State Government began its ongoing commitment to returning those parts of the Sydney Harbour foreshore used for military purposes to public use. From an early date, the little harbour enclosed at the west of the jetty was used by watermen, and later by commercial launches. The jetty and adjoining foreshores were part of the Domain and the steps attracted picnickers to the park at the tip of Fort Macquarie. Naval use has of the steps has now ceased, with expansion of alongside facilities for major warships at Garden Island, but memorial plaques on the entrance pillars to the steps recall their most recent military use - "From these Steps 2215 officers and sailors of the RAN left to serve their country in the Great War 1914-18, and the Second World War 1939-45, Korea, Malaya and Vietnam, never to return to enjoy the fruits of their labours in their native land. When the Opera House was built, the Man O'War Steps were cleared of all structures and the present day pontoons were added to the original stonework. Restored in 1973, the complex is now a major embarkation point for harbour cruises.



1812 - George Street Wall

A stone retaining wall was built by Gov Macquarie along the eastern side of George Street during the early years of his Governorship. A section of this wall has survived and is visible behind Cadmans Cottage. The stone for the wall was quarried on site.



1814 - Old South Head Road Marker

A marker post located near the Harbour foreshore in Robertsons Park at Watsons Bay records the construction of the first major road through Sydneys east which was also the first to be financed by subscription in suburban Sydney. The post reads, ÒThis road, made by subscription, was completed in 10 weeks from 25th March, 1814 by 21 soldiers of His Majestys 73rd Regiment. The marker post was erected by Gov. Macquarie and honours the construction work of Macquaries own regiment. The road was paid for by residents who lived between Sydney and the tiny fishing settlement that had sprung up at Watsons Bay in the form of a subscription negotiated with them by Macquarie. The agreement allowed for pedestrians to travel free, a horseman paid three pence and the cost to vehicular traffic would be Òin accordance to its quality. The road replaced a rough track cut through the bush by the colonial surgeon John Harris in 1803. Early records indicate that the section of road between Hyde Park and Centennial Park known today as Oxford Street followed an Aboriginal track between the two locations.


Sydney Botanical Gardens

1816 - Sydney Botanical Gardens

The gardens are located on part of a large area set aside for public use in 1788 by Gov. Phillip which incorporated all land to the East of the towns eastern ridge (Macquarie Street) to Wooloomooloo Bay from the Harbour south to the present Central Railway Station. Known to the natives as Wocanmagully, its colonial name was Farm Cove as it was on 30 hectares of land cleared and cultivated in the early months of 1788 that Gov. Phillip and his colony looked towards for their future food supply. While the vegetables they planted grew well, such could not be said for the cereal crops which, being planted in the middle of summer, either failed to germinate or withered and died under the hot Summer sun. The use of the Farm Cove site for vegetables continued until the arrival of Gov. Macquarie whose vision for Sydney included the landscaping of the land around the Farm Cove plantation. In 1816, Australias first botanist, Charles Frazer, laid out the designer gardens of the Botanical Gardens to the requirements of Gov. and Mrs Macquarie, which included the damming of a small creek which flowed into the cove to form the gardens ponds. The mud flats were filled in, however the seawall we see today was not constructed until much later (1848 - 1879).

Australia's oldest scientific institution, the Botanical Gardens is still laid out the way Macquarie and Frazer planned it, and features plant specimens collected by Joseph Banks and James Cook on their epic voyage of discovery along the east coast of Australia in 1770; a palm grove, planted in 1862, which features 180 species; a herb garden; a tropical centre in two glass pyramids; the National Herbarium of NSW which houses a collection of over 1 million dried plant specimens; a vegetable garden on the exact site of Gov. Phllips garden containing vegetables similar to what Phillip planted; a 290 metre section of Macquaries Wall, built by Gov. Macquarie in 1810 to divide the gardens from the rest of the public domain.


Obelisk, Macquarie Place

1818 - Obelisk, Macquarie Place, Sydney

The tiny triangle of greenery which faced the Governors wharf that is Macquarie Place Park today was once the lower corner of a garden used to grow the produce for the Governors table. The triangular garden originally extended east to what is now Phillip Street. The Macquarie Place roadway extended beyond its present length along the then shoreline of Sydney Cove to what is now Circular Quay East. The patk was reduced in size considerably when Young Street was extended to Circular Quay. It was from this spot that Macquarie measured distances within the colony of New South Wales and where in 1818 he commissioned Francis Greenway to design and build a sandstone obelisk to record those distances. Constructed by Sydneys foremost master Stonemason, Edward Cureton, at a cost of £85, its carefully hand carved letters and numerals reflect the limits of the little colony at that time. It records the mileages to Bathurst, Windsor, Parramatta, South Head and North Head of Botany Bay. Curiously Commissioner Bigge included the obelisk among his list of Gov. Macquaries financial extravagances. Macquaries justifiably indignant response described it as a Òlittle unadorned obelisk, placed as it was, at a point whence distances were measured, and rendered at a trifling expense.

Summary of Other Buildings and Structures in the Sydney Region from the Macquarie Era

1816-46 - Windmill Hill House Ruin, Wilton Road Appin. An early pastoral property featuring a single storey stone farmhouse, wheat mill and fish hatchery.

1812 - Northampton Dale, Brooks Point Road, Appin. A collection of farm buildings including slab farm outbuildings dating from 1812. Part of Lachlan Vale, one of the areas largest grants, to First Fleeter William Broughton.

1818 - Bonnyrigg Homestead, Brown Road, Bonnyrigg. Built as the male schoolmasters residence for the Female Orphan School. A rare surviving example of Colonial Georgian architecture. Remnants of the Female Orphan School date from 1806 include fruit trees and a grape vine.

1816 - Warbys Barn and Stables, 14 - 20 Queen Street, Campbelltown. Sandstone buildings representing one of the earliest farms of the area. Built by ex-convict, explorer and farmer John Warby (1744 - 1851).

1811 - Hadley Park, RMB 113 Castlereagh Road, Castlereagh. A two storey bricknog farmhouse, the oldest building in the Nepean Valley, built for pardoned convict, Charles Hadley.

1810-17 - Glenfield farm house, Leacocks Lane, Casula. A single storey cottage built for Charles Throsby.

1821 - Clarendon Servants Quarters, 96 Dight Street, Clarendon. Built by William Cox. The complex included a smithy, meat curing house, tweed mill, flour mill, sadlers, tailors, butcher and bakehouse, stables.

1812, 1825(?) - The Round House, Cobbitty. A single storey stone cottage built for use by the Government herdsmen.


Brush Farm, Eastwood

1819 - Brush Farm, Marsden Road, Eastwood. Built by Gregory Blaxland, who lived here with his family from 1807 to 1881. A two storey Georgian home embellished with cast iron lacework, verandah and enclosed windows in 1880s when it was used as the Carpentarian Reform School for Boys. It was later used to train prison officers. Once suported by farm buildings, orchards, gardens and ploughed fields, it was originally part of the estate of William Cox, paymaster of the NSW Corps.

1811 - Rose Cottage, Australiana Village, Ebeneezer. A settlers cottage built of Ironbark slabs with She-Oak shingle roofing, it is Australias oldest timber building and oldest dwelling. Originally located at Wilberforce.

1812(?) - Myrtle Bank, 1 Tizanna Road, Ebeneezer. This stone cottage was the home of John Howe, Chief Constable at Windsor from 1812 - 1825. He was a prominent storekeeper, general contractor and explorer.

1817 - Ebeneezer Uni
ting Church Schoolhouse, Ebeneezer.

1817 - The Schoolmasters Residence, Corromandel Road, Ebeneezer. An excellent example of early colonial architecture, built for Andrew Johnston.

1815 - Galvins Cottage, Macarthur Road, Elderslie. A brick single storey home, one of Camdens first, built for John Galvin.

1820 - Rose Farm House (McDonalds Farm), 17 - 19 Honour Street, Ermington. A single storey sandstone and sandstock brick Georgian cottage built for Alexander McDonald, a Marine of the First Fleet.



Eschol Park House

1820 - Eschol Park House, Eschol Park Road, Eschol Park. Two storey stone building known as Eagle Vale. In 1858 William Fowler established a vineyard and re-named it Eschol Park.

1818 - Horsley Park, The Horsley Drive. A single storey cottage built for the daughter of Major Johnston.

1820, 1825-26 - Denham Court & Chapel, Campbelltown Road, Ingleburn. Double storey Grecian style home built for Captain Richard Brooks. A two storeyed wing and two one storeyed wings were added by colonial architect John Verge in 1833. Rear section built 1820.

1812 - Portland Head Farm, off Portland Head Road, Koromandel. Georgian two storey stone residence built for Scot Andrew Johnston after the 1811 flood.

1810 - Collingwood, 12 Birkdale Crescent, Liverpool. Single storey stone cottage built for Capt. Ebenezer Bunker, a 3rd Fleeter.

1818-20 - Anglican Church of St Luke, Liverpool. Georgian brick church designed by Francis Greenway. One of the three oldest surviving Anglican churches in Australia.

1819 - Clydesdale, Richmond Road, Marsden Park. A two storey house, built for Charles Thomson.

1819 - Belgenny, Elizabeth Macarthur Avenue, Camden. A single storey timber home built for John Macarthur, designed by Henry Kitchen, a rival of Francis Greenway. The farm outbuildings are the earliest examples of their kind in Australia. This historic farm is where the Macarthurs bred their famous merino sheep. In 1817, Macarthur returned from exile in England with a collection of vine cuttings obtained from the top vineyards of France, which he planted at Belgenny and Penrith. The Belgenny vineyard was tended by German vinedressers which Macarthur brought out from the Rhine Valley. The winery remained operational for many years. Its ruins remain. The vineyard has been replanted in recent times not far from its original site. It is owned & operated by NSW Dept. of Agriculture.

1811-20 - Coxs Cottage, St. Thomas Road, Mulgoa. A single storey weatherboard was the home of George Cox, one of the sons of William Cox. It is one of Australias oldest extant timber buildings.

1816 - Kirkham Stables, Kirkham Lane, Narellan. A simple colonial farmhouse and outbuildings built by Surveyor Lieutenant John Oxley on his 600 acre grant.

1818 - Harrington Park, 499 Camden Valley Way, Narellan. Home of Capt. William Campbell.

1814, 1820s - Clare House, 4 Clare Street, Oakville. The front section was built in 1814, the rest in 1820s.

1810, 1825 - Exeter Farm, Meurants Lane, Parklea. The older section was a timber framed building with timber slab infill panels. A later three-roomed section of vertical timber slab construction was built by emancipist Daniel Bryan on his grant of April 1821.

1821 - Brislington, Cnr George & Mardsden Sts, Parramatta. Fine colonial home built by convict John Hodges. It now houses a medical and nursing museum.


Female Orphan School

1813-18 - Female Orphan School, James Ruse Drive, Parramatta. Located within the grounds of the Parramatta campus of the University of Western Sydney, it was built by Gov. Macquarie and used no convict labour in its construction. He was disturbed by the street urchins in Parramatta and built this charitable institution to house female orphans. Made of locally quarried stone, it is Australias oldest three storey building. It is said to be haunted. Originally home to hundreds of orphaned girls, and later to the deranged inmates of a lunatic asylum, the Female Orphan School is now located in the middle of University of Western Sydney Parramatta Campus.

The first shipment of female orphans were 70 girls who arrived by boat on the nearby Parramatta river in June 1818. By 1829 there were 152 girls in a building designed for 100. Numbers in the 1830's averaged 170. Some of the children were orphans with no parents but many of the girls came from single parent families. Most were the children of convicts still under sentence. The girls were instructed in sewing, weaving, religion, writing, cooking, laundry and other domestic work. In 1850 the Female Orphan School became co-educational as boys were moved in from Bonnyrigg. It was then renamed the protestant Orphan School. The place was not run all that badly, the children did not suffer abuse and were treated quite well. However there were instances of children being chained to logs as punishment for climbing trees. Some girls were locked in the dark cellars underneath the orphanage as punishment, various diseases went through the Orphanage and wiped out a great number of children. These diseases included Scarlet Fever, Small Pox, Cholera, Whopping Cough and Influenza.

1810s - St Patricks Cemetery, Cnr Church St & Pennant Hills Rd, Parramatta. Early cemetery serving Parramatta and Toongabbie, it was established in Macquaries time and was still in use until the 1870s. The foundation stone of the cemeterys chapel was laid in August 1844.

1817(?) - Old Manse Farm, Punt Road, Pitt Town. A single storey sandstock brick home, it was purchased by the Presbyterian Church in 1831 as a manse for Ebeneezer and Pitt Town.

1813, 1816 - Mulgrave Place, 104-106 Bathurst Street, Pitt Town. A homestead and inn owned and built by Henry Fleming. Known as Macquarie Inn, its verandah was added in the Victorian era and its north wing built in 1913.

1806 - Mountain View, Inalls Lane, Richmond. The original long narrow cottage at right angles to the two storey structure was built in 1806 by former surgeon John Dight. The two storey section was added in 1812.

1815-17 - Bowman Cottage, Richmond. A brick nog home built by James Blackman, a free settler. Contable George Bowman bought the house in 1818. He was the first mayor of Richmond.

1807 onwards - Cumberland Place Steps, Cumberland Street, The Rocks. A public thoroughfare from Harrington to Cumberland Street, comprising a series of flights of steps and landings. The section of steps from Harrrington Street between Nos 55 and 57 with stone stone steps that are worn and uneven date from 1807.

1813-18 - Rouse Hill House, Windsor Road, Rouse Hill. A slab cottage with timber out-buildings dating from 1813. The two storey sandstone residence was built by Richard Rouse, Superintendant of Public Works at Parramatta. The two storey service wing was added at the rear in 1863.


National Trust Centre

1815 - National Trust Centre, Observatory Hill Sydney. It is appropriate that the National Trust, an organisation devoted to the protection of Australia's heritage should itself occupy a building of such significance. As a military hospital built by Gov. Macquarie and designed by J.C. Watts, the building served the garrison stationed in Sydney. From 1849 as Fort Street School the building saw some famous Australians educated there. The Board of National Education, under which the school was established, stood for 'equal opportunity of education to all colonists independent of rank, class or description of persons'. The Boys High School moved to Petersham in 1916. The Girls High School followed in 1975.

1820 - Stoneleigh, Cnr Castle Hill Road and Pennant Hills Road, West Pennant Hills. It is said that when the Governor left Parramatta, he would see the pennant flying from the flagpole here, hence the name of the area (Pennant Hills).

1810s - Rose Cottage, Buttsworth Lane, Wilberforce.
An excellent example of a Macquarie era farmhouse. It is Australias oldest timber dwelling standing on its original site.

1814 - Macquarie School, Macquarie Street, Wilberforce. A two storey building, the only surviving one of four such buildings constructed by Macquarie as country school houses. Served as both a church and schoolhouse.

1814-16 - Toll House, Bridge Street, Windsor. A stone structure built to house the tollkeeper for the Sydney to Windsor Road bridge crossing over South Creek (later Fitzroy Bridge).

1815 - Macquarie Arms Hotel, Thompson Square, Windsor. Built by emancipist R. Fitzgerald and originally called the Royal Hotel, Gov Macquarie used to stay here when he visited Windsor.


St Matthews Anglican Church, Windsor

1817 - St Matthews Anglican Church, Greenway Crescent, Windsor. Francis Greenways fine Georgian style church built of sandstock brick and sandstone by convict labour. Gov. Macquarie laid the foundation stone and placed a holey dollar beneath it and it was stolen twice. Hailed as one of Greenways finest designs.

1820-22 - Hawkesbury District Hospital, 95 Macquarie Street, Windsor. Originally erected as a convicts barracks.

1820-21 - Court House, Court Street, Windsor. A rare surviving example of a Colonial Georgian public building. Designed by Francis Greenway and built by William Cox for £1,500 using convict labour.

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