Sheldon Forest, Pymble
Found in the high rainfall areas of Wianamatta Shale soils. Tall, open forest or wet sclerophyll forest, composed of big trees up to 50 metres high. Most common trees were Sydney Blue Gum (Eucalyptus saligna), which were particularly abundant on the lower slopes and in valleys, and Blackbutt (Eucalyptus pilularis), which occupied the ridges. Other trees included Angophora costata; Grey Ironbark (Eucalyptus globoidea); Turpentine (Syncarpia glomulifera); Forest Oak (Allocasuarina torulosa). The undergrowth included shrubs up to 2 metres high which included Dodonaea triqueta, Persoonia linearis, Leucapogon juniperinus and Hibbertia aspera. In moister depressions, ferns such as Culcita debia, Doodia aspera and Adiantum aethiopicum were common, with small trees like Pittosporum undulatum, Polyscias sambucifolia, Coachwood and Lillypilly (Acmena smithii).
Original location: Central spine of the North Shore from Crows Nest to Hornsby; high land between Castle Hill and Eastwood. It was these forests which became the major source of timber for Sydney during the 19th century.
Carlingford - remants of Blue Gum High Forest remain at Mobbs Hill and along the creeks and hillslopes of the whole Hills district.
Beecroft - 2ha of high forest is preserved at Ludovic Blackwood Sanctuary.
Pennant Hills - remnants of high forest trees in Pennant Hills Park.
Normanhurst - small clusters of trees remain from the forest which once covered the area. Other remnants are scattered beside roadsides and parks throughout the district.
St. Ives - Dalrymple-Hay Nature Reserve and Browns Forest contains 16ha of the high forest of Blackbutt, Grey Ironbark, Red Mahoganies and Blue Gums which once covered the upper north shore.
Pymble - 7ha of original high forest is protected in Sheldon Forest.
Wahroonga - 1.7ha of high forest is preserved at Clive Evatt Reserve.
Eastwood - remnants of high forest remain at Brush Farm Park and Darvall Park (Denistone).
Artarmon - remnants of high forest can be found at Artarmon Reserve.
Excelsior Reserve, Carlingford
Found in medium rainfall areas of Wianamatta Shale soils. Medium height open forest (up to 30 metres). The most common trees were Turpentine (Syncarpia glomulifera); White Stringybark (Eucalyptus globoidea); Red Mahogany (Eucalyptus resinfera) and Grey Ironbark (Eucalyptus paniculata). Understorey was quite dense except where it has been burnt off by the Aborigines, a task they performed on a regular basis to kep the bush accessible, reduce the fire hazard in Summer and make hunting easier. Acacia trees were common understorey species.
Original location: A large Turpentine-Ironbark forest extended from Glebe and Newtown west to Auburn and south to Hurstville and Milperra. This forest continues south beyond the Georges River. Another forest was located north of the Parramatta River between Ryde and Glenorie.
Northmead - banks of Darling Mills and Toongabbie Creeks have fine examples of Blackbutt and diverse shrub understorey, with over 200 species of Excelsior Reserve.
Pitt Town - woodland area featuring Grey Box and Forest Red Gum and Longneck Lagoon.
Kenthurst - O'Haras Creek catchment features ridge-top woodland of Sydney Peppermint, Red and Yellow Bloodwoods, Grey Gums and Narrow-leaved Apples and tall open-forest of Sydney Blue Gums on the valley floor.
Maroota - relatively untouched country abounds in White Stringybark, Turpentines and Grey Gums.
Cattai - cross section of forest types depending on terrain may be seen in the Cattai National Park.
Round Corner - a remnant of ridge-top forest, typical of that once covered the whole district, can be found at Ellerman Park.
Arcadia - sample of the forest of White Mahogany, Red Mahogany and White Stringybarks which covered the area located in NE corner of Fagan Park.
Hornsby - Turpentine-Ironbark forests abound beyond suburbia and are conserved in Ku-ring-gai Chase and Marramarra National Parks, Muogamarra Nature Reserve, Pennant Hills Park, Berowra Valley Bushland Park and Elouera Bushland Natural Park. Gordon/East Lindfield/Forestville - vast forests fill the valleys of Garigal and Davidson National Park.
Ryde - 6ha of forest remain in Wallumatta Forest, East Ryde.
Ashfield - Turpentine and Blackbutt trees in Ashfield Park and Albert Parade are remnants of the original forest.
Silverwater - 20ha of forest on land used for storing naval munitions. It contains over 100 native species; Rookwood Cemetery,
Auburn - bushland remnants including good examples of mahogany, ti-tree, wattle scrub, stringybark, woollybutt, banksia and scribbly gum.
Bankstown - sheltered gullies near Marion Street and small escarpment between Milperra and Punchbowl.
Greenacre - Norkfolk Reserve contains remnants of original vegetation including Ironbarks and Woollybutt.
Leighton, Birong and Regents Park - find examples of Ironbark-Grey Box, melaleuca etc. in valleys of creeks such as Duck River and Salt Pan Creek.
Bass Hill, Leightonfield and Condell Park - good examples of small shrubs along railway line and in Carysfield Park
Wiley Park - remnants survive in the grounds of Wiley Park Girls High Shool.
Concord - strip of natural bushland in the grounds of Dame Edith Walker Hospital containing Ironbark, Red Mahogany, Grey Gum, Turpentine and Rough-barked Apple. Some Turpentines, Grey Ironbarks and Blackbutt remain in Queen Elizabeth Park, at Concord Golf Course, along Majors Bay Road. Rough-barked Apples and White Stringybarks in grounds of North Strathfield Public School.
Rhodes - woodlands with original vegetation of small shrubs and dense shrubby undergrowth exist at Cabarita Park, Bayview Park and Prince Edward Park, with Blackbutt, Red Bloodwood, Smooth-barked Apple, Black She-oak, Cheese Tree and Coast Banksia remaining on the headlands.
Hurstville - small remnants in Riverwood Park;
Penshurst - important group of trees in Olds Park;
Oatley - group of Syncarpia trees in River Road. The only surviving occurance of Grey Ironbark on the Georges River foreshore is at Oatley Point Reserve.
Marrickville - a few examples of Blackbutt and Swampy Oak remain around the Marrickville Golf Course.
Strathfield - a few turpentines remain in Strathfield Park.
Randwick - remnants of a eucalyptus forest, the kind of which were common in the sheltered sandstone gullies of the area, can be found in Glebe Gully.
Bondi - Cooper Park at the head of the major draining gully into Double Bay, has a pocket of woodland forest.
Huters Hill - tiny remnants of Turpentine-Ironbark forest remain on the sandstone slopes of Boronia Park. Smaller pockets exist in other parts of the suburb.
North Ryde - remnants of hillside forest remain east of Northern Suburbs Cremetorium, north-east of Macquarie University and throughout the Lane Cover National Park.
Ryde - remnants of forest at Wallumetta Forest. Change from sandstone to shale is reflected in change of vegetation from Turpentine-Ironbark to Sydney Blue Gum in forest remnant at Burrows Park. Field of Mars Reserve contains a well preserved sheltered woody valley near the Cascades.
Sutherland/Bonnett Bay - remnants of forest, similar to those once covering the area are now ccupied by inner Sydney, abound between the pockets of recent urban development and on the steep hillsides above the Woronora River.
Geiorges River Reserve, Ingleburn
The driest part of Sydney which includes deep clays, shale and some sandstone strata on level or slightly rising plains. Easily penetrated open scrubland, free of shrubs and dotted with smaller trees including Grey Box (Eucalyptus moluccana), Narrow-leaved Ironbark (Eucalyptus crebra) and Broad-leaved Ironbark (Eucalyptus fibrosa) on the rises; Forest Red Gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis) on the lower hills. Cabbage Gum (Eucalyptus amplifolia), Blue Box (Eucalyptus bauerana), Bosito's Box (Eucalyptus bositoana) and Broad-leaved Apple (Angophora subvelutina) near creeks or in poorly drained areas; with Stringybark (Eucalyptus eugenioides) and Woollybutt (Eucalyptus logifolia) appearing more prevalently in the east near Bankstown.
Original location: Plains west of Parramatta, south to Campbelltown and Camden and north to Richmond and Windsor. The Cumberland Plain Woodlands is bordered to the north-east around Castlereagh and Londonderry by woodlands of Grey Box and Forest Red Gum, and to the north on the Nepean-Hawkesbury River floodplain, particularly downstream from Windsor, by River-flat forests of Sydney Blue Gum, Deane's Gum (Eucalyptus deanei), Forest Red Gum, Broad-leaved Apple, River Oak (Casuarina cunninghamiana), Water gum (Tristaniopsis laurina) and Cabbage Gum.
Bankstown - extensive area with a wide variety of species in Lansdowne Park.
East Hills - remnants of river-flat forest at Deepwater Park, with pockets of woodlands and mangroves nearby.
Parramatta - a few Grey Box and Forest Red Gum survive in Parramatta Park.
South Granville - 11ha of original vegetation remain along Duck River. It includes open scrub, open heathland, clumps of Melaleuca and Kangaroo Grass. Trees include Grey Box, Woollybutt, Red Mahogany, Stringybark, Rough-barked Apple, Grey Gum and a fine stand of Cabbage Gum.
Eastern Creek - extensive stands of natural vegetation preserved on Water Board land surrounding Prospect Reservoir. Includes Grey Box, Forest Red Gum, Spotted Gum. Smaller stands at Kareela Reserve along Eastern Creek.
Berkshire Park - Well preserved native vegetation in Castlereagh Nature Reseve.
Marsden Park - extensive Castlereagh woodlands.
Shanes Park - extensive woodlands preserved within radio transmitter station.
Camden - Camden Park has the best preserved examples of alluvium forests on the Nepean River which includes Blue Box, Broad-leaved Apple, Ribbon Gums, River Peppermints, River Oaks, Water Gums.
Campbelltown - small stands of Grey Box and Forest Red Gum remain in Mount Annan Botanic Garden.
Appin - a fine stand of Spotted Gum stand beside the Appin Road.
Airds/Kentlyn/Minto Heights - pockets of natural vegetation exist along the length of the George River Gorge between Macquarie Fields and Airds.
Fairfield - a small section of a forest of Spotted Gum which once covered the whole area has been preserved at Bossley Bush Recreation reserve.
Hoxton Park - the remnants of a large Spotted Gum forest is found west of Hoxton Park Aerodrome.
Penrith - pockets of River Oaks, Deane's Gum, Blackbutt and Red Cedar fringe the Nepean River Gorge north of Penrith.
This vegetation and landscape is the traditional image evoked by the term "Hawkesbury Sandstone". Areas of shallow sandy soils comprising of sandstone heaths, woodlands, and light forests which make up the largest areas of remaining natural vegetation around Sydney. Coastal heath is the main vegetation on the headlands between Palm Beach and Royal National Park. Pockets of similar scrubland occur around Middle Harbour, Deep creek, the Lane Cove valley, between Hornsby and Kenthurst and Sutherland to Holsworthy. Vegetation, mainly low scrub includes Banksia ericifolia, Angophora hispida (left) and needle-leaved Hakea teretifolia; smaller eucalypts such as Eucalyptus haemastroma, Red Bloodwood (Eucalyptus gummifer and Eucalyptus oblonga); and Mallee eucalypts (Eucalyptus luehmanniana; Eucalyptus obtusiflora and Eucalyptus multicaulis). Higher ridges populated by Scribbly Gums, Red Bloodwood, Grey Gum (Eucalyptus punctata), Black Ash or Silver-top Ash is very common around Sutherland and Yellow Bloodwood (Eucalyptus eximia) occurs extensively around Arcadia and Maroota. Open forests occurred on exposed hillsides.
A vegetation type common to many bushland parks and reserves, it includes Sydney Peppermint (Eucalyptus peperita), smooth-barked Angophora costata, Red Bloodwood and Black She-oak are frequent. In open forest on sheltered hillsides, Turpentines, Blueberry Ash and Christmas Bush (Ceratopetalum gummiferum) are common with softer shrubs like Grevilleas, bracken (Pteridium esculentum) and bracken-like Culcita dubia. Small trees and shrubs including Tristaniopos laurina, Lomatia myricoides and Austromyrtus tenufolia, and ferns including Gleichenia dicarpa, Sticherus flabellatus and Maidenhair (Adiantum aethiopicum) are common besides creeks.
A strip of Hawkesbury Sandstone country between Long Reef and Barrenjoey, and the lower slopes of Pittwater, Broken Bay and the Hawkesbury as far as Wiseman's Ferry, once featured forests of Spotted Gum (Eucalyptus maculata), Grey Ironbark (Eucalyptus paninculata), Cabbage Palm (Livistona australis) and Rough-barked Apple (Angophora floribunda).